Results: St. Paul lived neither thrice nor never, but one time sounds credible.
In Antioch, every 300 years within the 1st millennium, at least one Paulus, Paulos or Paulinus inspires a Christian movement that brings turmoil to the world. Revisionists have to erase all these religious pioneers from the books, because the sources are already thin for Saint Paul. Their opponents must defend all these Pauls, because they do not want to denude archaeologically empty periods from their meager filling stories too. In reality, Paulinists of the 1st, Paulinians of the 4th, and Paulicians of the 8th century AD are one and the same movement auf Saint Paul (c. 10-60 AD). The synagogues in which he first preached are by no means absent, but rather the Jewish assembly houses, currently dated to the 4 th century although their technologies and decorations belong to the 1st century. Textual sources so far misdated to the 4th and 8th centuries illustrate why Antioch, as the center of Hellenistic Judaism, must also turn into the hotbed for the new sect, i.e. into the "Cradle of Christianity", which has been closely watched by the authorities right from the beginning.
Nevertheless, Bible scholars who want to erase St. Paul from the history books are as well qualified as the massive majority that defends him. The latter rightly emphasize that the Pauline smoke, which is still rising worldwide today, must have been preceded by a Pauline fire. This is a weighty point. But it more resembles a strong hunch than convincing proof. The lack of non-Christian sources about Paul and persecutions of his Paulinists in Asia Minor is support for the doubters. The same applies to many of the Paul epistles that were not written by him. Mainstream historians appear downright ridiculous when they consider 4th c. portraits to be genuine representations of the 1st century apostle. Even more damaging for the veracity of the apostle and his early Christian environment is the lack of church basilicas, not only in the time of Paul himself, but for a hefty 300 years (30s to 330s AD) since the death of Jesus (c. 4 BC to c. 30/33 AD).
However, both the defenders and erasers of Pauline history have something in common. They are united in a deep conviction that precisely one thousand years passed between 1 and 1000 AD. Stratigraphically empty periods hardly interest them. Many scholars are not even aware of them and only focus on written material as it has been edited since the 11th/12th century. Therefore, they don’t realize that archaeological strata indicate that – per individual city, between 1 and the 930s AD –– apartments, latrines, aqueducts, sewers and kitchens etc. were only built for 230 to 240 years.
Since the erasers of Paul believe in mainstream history’s anti-stratigraphic chronology of the first millennium just as dogmatically as their opponents, the stalemate –– Yes Paul vs. No Paul –– can can go on indefinitely.
However, if the stratigraphic approach is tried, it immediately becomes clear that the similarities of basilica floor plans from the 2nd, 5th and 9th centuries or from the 3rd, 6th and 10th centuries result from their simultaneity. The indistinguishability of building techniques of the 1st century of St. Paul with those of the 4th and 8th centuries does not indicate an inexplicable standstill of evolution and innovation but is, again, due to the contemporaneity of all “three” time-spans. Stratigraphically, this single period, which is conventionally dated 1 to the 230s AD in Imperial Rome, actually belongs to the time period from approximately 700 to the 930s CE.
Texts, images, and buildings pertaining to St. Paul and his followers, that are scattered over Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, are actually contemporary with Paul’s Imperial Antiquity, for which non-Christian sources are missing. Thus, the generally accepted assertion that there are no non-biblical sources regarding Paul and his movement can be refuted. By reassigning the sources dated to Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages to Paul’s Imperial Antiquity, research on the apostle can seriously begin for the first time. Materials previously distributed over three periods now illuminate a single period and make it much brighter. The approximately 700 fictitious years that are dropped from mainstream chronology do not impoverish history, but finally make it intelligible.
The stratigraphic gateway into a whole new analysis of the Apostle and his followers in no way invalidates previous results of text-critical research. Whether only seven or even just six epistles were written by Paul himself remains secondary. The unquestionable epistles belong to the period when Jerusalem’s temple was still active, i.e. they were written before 70 AD. That would fit Paul’s conventional date of 10 to 60 AD. Paul sources from all “three” epochs show that there has not yet been a codification of the New Testament and that Paul’s theological teachings were disseminated by means of the epistles. All this confirms the Paul known from Imperial Antiquity’s 1st century AD, which stratigraphically belongs to the 8th century CE. The following overview indicates how information about Paul, which so far was not supported by independent sources, can be confirmed by information which was always there but wrongly dated. St. Paul lived neither never nor three times, but once he did (c. 710-760 CE or c. 1240-1290 Before Present [i.e. before 1950])