Were 460 years added to the official chronology?

Pierre

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The following thread is split off from this discussion about a 'planetary alignment' in early 2022.

Informed by Laura's biblical research and recent sessions with the Cs, it appears that as many as five centuries may have been 'added' to official chronology - specifically, between the end of the Roman Empire (whenever exactly that was) and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

With a view to researching and discussing this possibility, the following thread opens with the latest chapter from Pierre's new book, Mass Extinctions, Evolutionary Leaps, and the Virus-Information Connection, which is being published as it is written, here.


Here is part of chapter 19 which deals with 460 added years:

Chapter 19: Society before and after both plagues​



Social conditions before plague of Justinian​


The years before the advent of the Plague of Justinian were marked by the worst tyranny imaginable. I extensively described the situation in a previous book[1]. A few words from Belisarus might suffice to sum up the nature of Justinian and his regime:

That Justinian was not a man, but a demon, as I have said, in human form, one might prove by considering the enormity of the evils he brought upon mankind.[2]
The Nikka riots ca. 532 AD might illustrate the deleterious socio-political context under Justinian’s reign. These were the most violent riots in the history of Constantinople, with half of city being destroyed and thirty thousand rioters killed[3].

Only four years later, a cometary event ca. 536 AD and its consequences, including the Plague of Justinian almost obliterated Europe.

Social and civilizational conditions after the Plague of Justinian

Extensive studies of the available evidence show that, during the 6th century A.D., any kind of human activity beyond basic survival vanished. Furthermore, between the 7th and the 9th centuries, human activity in the Roman Empire was virtually inexistent:

Houses: Building regressed from numerous elaborate stone houses to scattered wooden shacks.[4]

Metal: This flourishing industry during the Roman Empire ceased to exist. It was only during the 16th Century – a full 1,000 years later – that the level of industrial activity prior to the fall of Rome would be once more attained.[5]

Pottery: Widespread and elaborate products became very rare and progress stagnated so much that it’s impossible to distinguish 7th-century ceramics from those produced two centuries later.[6]

Ecclesiastical buildings: The very few churches built during this period were more than ten times smaller than the 4th-century St. Peter’s Basilica of Rome.[7] Only the cathedrals of the 11th century would attain similar sizes.

Farming and warfare: profound stagnation in both these fields for three centuries.[8]

Coinage: Sharp drop in the quality and quantity of coins in most regions of the Empire.[9]

Written documents: almost totally absent for three centuries.[10]

Soon after the last plague outbreak, after more than two centuries of survival and stagnation, civilization re-emerged around 800 AD with a renewed vitality. This period of blooming cultural activity is called the Carolingian Renaissance:

During this period, there was an increase of literature, writing, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms, and scriptural studies.[11]
The most salient effect of the Carolingian Renaissance was a moral regeneration, which is interesting because, at the time, lack of morality and ‘divine wrath’ (for example, in the form of comets and/or plagues) were closely associated[12]:

[The Carolingian Renaissance] had a spectacular effect on education and culture in Francia, a debatable effect on artistic endeavors, and an unmeasurable effect on what mattered most to the Carolingians, the moral regeneration of society.[13]
Most are familiar with the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius, which buried Pompeii and Herculaneum overnight.


destruction of pompeii 79 AD vesuivus.jpg
© John Martin 1822
The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum


The most well-known eyewitness account of the eruption was not written by Pliny the Younger, as is generally believed, but much later in 1498, by Giovanni Giocondo[14], who claimed to have found Pliny’s original letters in Paris. Unfortunately, the original letters no longer exist.[15] what Giocondo found, and what he claimed to have found, are different in any way? Notice also that some other works by Giocondo are marked by controversy.[16] [17] [18]
Spewing ash, Vesuvius spewed a deadly cloud of ash and gases at 1.5 million tons per second, and to a height of 33 km.[19] Pulverized pumice and lava fragments piled up to 20 meters[20] deep,[21] leaving the city of Pompeii buried beneath four million tons of volcanic material and debris[22].

The eruption released 100,000 times the thermal energy of the atomic bomb of Hiroshima[23]. The estimated VEI[24] was 5 on a scale of 8, making it one of the largest known eruptions in the past 2,000 years.

The only problem is, in spite of this magnitude, it didn’t leave any signature whatsoever in Greenland ice cores:
Major and trace element composition of the particles indicates that the tephra does not derive from Vesuvius but most likely originates from an unidentified eruption in the Aleutian arc. Using ash dispersal modelling, we find that only an eruption large enough to include stratospheric injection is likely to account for the sizeable (24–85 μm) ash particles observed in the Greenland ice at this time. Despite its likely explosivity, this event does not appear to have triggered significant climate perturbations, unlike some other large extra-tropical eruptions. In light of a recent re-evaluation of the Greenland ice-core chronologies, our findings further challenge the previous dating of this volcanic event to 79 CE.[25]

In Antarctica, it’s the same story; no noticeable deposits. Notice that “the event” didn’t trigger a noticeable temperature drop either:



volcanoes contrubation lines.jpg

© Michael Sigl et al.
Ice-core records of sulfur from two ice cores in Greenland and Antarctica





screenshot vesisius 79 and 540.jpg

© Smithsonian Institution
List of Vesuvius eruption between 536 AD and 79 AD


In contrast, the eruption of 540 AD is not only backed up by historical observations, but left very distinct marks in both Antarctica and Greenland and in temperature reconstructions. For some reason, it is the only eruption with no associated VEI.

Notice also, all the other alleged eruptions – in 172 AD, 203 AD, 222 AD, 379 AD, 472 AD and 512 AD – despite reaching, for several them, a VEI of 4 and 5 – didn’t leave any trace in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores and temperature reconstructions.

Could it be that just one eruption of Vesuvius (that of 540 AD, with its historical observations and confirmed ice cores) actually happened, while the other eruption (of 79 AD) didn’t happen?

That’s substantially what Mike Baillie proposes in his paper “Volcanoes, ice cores and tree rings; one story or two?”[26] In it he suggests that if no volcanic ash is to be found in ice cores corresponding to 79 AD (as shown by Plunkett et al.) then the real eruption – conventionally attributed to 79 AD – actually occurred in 540 AD.

If one eruption of Vesuvius became two, 461 years apart, could those 461 years have been added to the official timeline?

This time difference occurs elsewhere in historical chronology: the reign of Charlemagne[27] began in 768 AD, and the reign of Constantine began in 306 AD[28]. The difference between those two dates is 462 years.

The moral revival that marked the Carolingian Renaissance was centered on Christianity in general and on Constantine in particular:
This revival used Constantine's Christian empire as its model, which flourished between 306 and 337. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and left behind an impressive legacy of military strength and artistic patronage.
Charlemagne saw himself as the new Constantine and instigated this revival by writing his Admonitio generalis (789) and Epistola de litteris colendis (c.794-797). In the Admonitio generalis, Charlemagne legislates church reform, which he believes will make his subjects more moral and in the Epistola de litteris colendis, a letter to Abbot Baugulf of Fulda, he outlines his intentions for cultural reform. Most importantly, he invited the greatest scholars from all over Europe to come to court and give advice for his renewal of politics, church, art and literature.[29]

A number of authors, among them Heribert Illig and Gerhard Anwander[30], doubt the historicity of Charlemagne and argue that he was a mythical figure modeled after historical Constantine.​

cologne-cathedral-in-germany constantine and charlemagne.jpg
Constantine and Charlemagne on Cologne Cathédral

This makes sense since more or less 300 years were blank. But as demonstrated by Ward Perkins[31], blank doesn’t mean added.

Might it in fact be other way around: was a mythical Constantine modeled after the historical figure of Charlemagne? Another piece of evidence supporting this hypothesis is the forgery of the Constantine donation:​

Valla showed that the document could not possibly have been written in the historical era of Constantine (4th Century) because its vernacular style dated conclusively to a later era (8th Century). One of Valla's reasons was that the document contained the word satrap which he believed Romans such as Constantine I would not have used.[32]

In other words, Constantine’s legacy was to grant supreme temporal and spiritual power to the Church, and its main proof was a forgery (probably conducted at the behest of Pepin Le Bref[33], the father of Charlemagne).

One reason why 460 years may have been added is because this gave plenty of ‘time’ to establish a whole genealogy of Popes and Saints, dozens of which, incidentally, have been proven to be mythical.[34] [35]

A final question: why, during the time of Saint Paul, did Christianity not really catch on? In the 26 years (29 AD – 55 AD) he spent preaching, Paul gathered at most one thousand followers.[36] And yet, just a few centuries later, Christianity has taken Western Europe by storm, becoming the new state religion of the Germanic Holy Empire.

After all, the central values at the core of Christianity – mercy, forgiveness and love – were so foreign to most at the time[37].

Might it be that the collective trauma of cometary bombardment and/or a newly introduced virus triggered this evolutionary leap?

If 460 years were added the official time, then Paul was right he said to the Corinthians – which is dated from 43-46 AD[38]:
I mean, brothers and sisters, the appointed time has grown short; from now on, let even those who have wives be as though they had none, and those who mourn as though they were not mourning, and those who rejoice as though they were not rejoicing, and those who buy as though they had no possessions, and those who deal with the world as though they had no dealings with it. For the present form of this world is passing away[39]



[1] Lescaudron, 2014. Chapter 34: Historic evidence of a cosmic-human connection
[2] Procopius (1927) “The Secret History”, New York: Covici Friede. chapter XVIII, translated by Richard Atwater,
[3] Procopius. (1914) “History of the Wars” Volume I: Books 1-2. Harvard University Press.
[4] Ward-Perkins, Bryan (2005) “The fall of Rome”. Oxford University Press p.95 & p.111
[5] Ibid, pp. 96
[6] Niemitz, Hans-Ulrich (2000), Did the early middle age really exist, p.5
[7] Ward-Perkins, op. cit., pp. 148-149
[8] White Jr., Lynn (1968). “Die mittelalterliche Technik und der Wandel der Gesellschaft”. München
[9] Ward-Perkins, op. cit., pp. 110-117
[10] Hardouin, Jean, (2017) “The Prolegomena”, independently published. Translated by Edwin Johnson. p. 64
[11] Wikipedia contributors. (2021) ‘’Carolingian Renaissance’’ Wikipedia
[12] Lescaudron, 2014 chapter 32-35
[13] Contreni, John G. (1984) "The Carolingian Renaissance". Cambridge University Press
[14] Wikipedia contributors. (2021) “Giovanni Giocondo” Wikipedia
[15] Tom Higgins (2011) “Pliny Correspondence With Trajan John Bartrom” Scribd
[16] Kaiser, R. (2017) “Caesar's Rhine Bridge and Its Feasibility in Giovanni Giocondo's Expositio pontis (1513)”. In Knowledge, Text and Practice in Ancient Technical Writing (pp. 68-92) Cambridge University Press
[17] Stenhouse, William (2003) “Georg Fabricius and Inscriptions as a Source of Law.” Renaissance Studies 17, no. 1 96–107
[18] De Raedt N. (2016) “Architecture” In Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy. Springer
[19] Time editors (1956) “Man of Pompeii" Time
[20] 70 ft
[21] Sigurðsson, Haraldur et al. (1982) "The Eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79: Reconstruction from Historical and Volcanological Evidence" American Journal of Archaeology 86 (1)
[22] Noreen G. (2021) “A World Buried in the Eruption” Eruption Vesuvius
[23] Ibid
[24] Volcanic Explosivity Index
[25] Plunkett, G. et al. (2021) “No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology” Climate of the Past
[26] Baillie, M. (2010) “Volcanoes, ice-cores and tree-rings: One story or two?” Antiquity, 84(323), 202-215
[27] Wikipedia contributors (2021) “Charlemagne” Wikipedia
[28] Mark, J. J. (2019) “Donation of Constantine” World History Encyclopedia
[29] Nancy Ross (2021) “Carolingian art, an introduction” Khan Academy
[30] Heribert Illig, Gerhard Anwander (2002) “Bayern in der Phantomzeit. Archäologie widerlegt Urkunden des frühen Mittelalters”
[31] See: “Social and civilizational conditions after the plagues”
[32] Jeremy Norman (2021) “Lorenzo Valla Proves that the Donation of Constantine is a Forgery” History Of Information
[33] Ross, 2021
[34] Wikipedia contributors (2021) “List of Christian martyrs” Wikipedia
[35] Bauer, S. (2021). “Who Wrote the Lives of the Popes? Permutations of a Renaissance Myth’’ The Catholic Historical Review 107(1), 28-49
[36] Laura Knight-Jadczyk (2021) “From Paul to Mark: PaleoChristianity” Red Pill Press
[37] Mert Toker, “What historic/ancient civilization or society had the lowest preference for mercy?” Quora
[38] Laura Knight-Jadczyk, 2021
[39] 1 Cor 7: 29-31 (NRSVCE)​
 

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Human

The Living Force
Might it in fact be other way around: was a mythical Constantine modeled after the historical figure of Charlemagne? Another piece of evidence supporting this hypothesis is the forgery of the Constantine donation:​
Valla showed that the document could not possibly have been written in the historical era of Constantine (4th Century) because its vernacular style dated conclusively to a later era (8th Century). One of Valla's reasons was that the document contained the word satrap which he believed Romans such as Constantine I would not have used.[32]
In other words, Constantine’s legacy was to grant supreme temporal and spiritual power to the Church, and its main proof was a forgery (probably conducted at the behest of Pepin Le Bref[33], the father of Charlemagne).

Looks more likely that Constantine was modeled after Charlemagne than vice versa, true.


Word "satrap" caught my eye. It was mentioned on Ptolemy III wiki:
Ptolemy III built on the efforts of his predecessors to conform to the traditional model of the Egyptian pharaoh. He was responsible for the first known example of a series of decrees published as trilingual inscriptions on massive stone blocks in Ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and demotic. Earlier decrees, like the Satrap stele and the Mendes stele, had been in hieroglyphs alone and had been directed at single individual sanctuaries. By contrast, Ptolemy III's Canopus decree was the product of a special synod of all the priests of Egypt, which was held in 238 BC.

According to merriam-webster online dictionary, meaning of word "satrap":
satrap noun

1 : the governor of a province in ancient Persia
2a : ruler
b : a subordinate official : henchman

Could there have been 'models' (plural), not just one 'singular' (lone shooter sort of) after which Constantine was modeled?


If one eruption of Vesuvius became two, 461 years apart, could those 461 years have been added to the official timeline?

This time difference occurs elsewhere in historical chronology: the reign of Charlemagne[27] began in 768 AD, and the reign of Constantine began in 306 AD[28]. The difference between those two dates is 462 years.

What a great 'coincidence'! :-)
 

Laura

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One thing I pay attention to when reviewing history is art. I have never been able to figure out how the art of the Roman Empire went through the changes that would have been necessary to create the images of Constantine that we find. They are almost like cartoons.

Look at the images here: Roman art - Wikipedia

And then look at the head of Constantine here:
 

Mike

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
One thing I pay attention to when reviewing history is art. I have never been able to figure out how the art of the Roman Empire went through the changes that would have been necessary to create the images of Constantine that we find. They are almost like cartoons.
My reaction is that the art on the Constantine page just looks fake and seems to lack the creative ability or ability to accurately portray reality and/or to portray people in a realistic way. What came to mind is that maybe this is the type of art produced by psychopaths or beings that exhibit psychopathic traits, such as possibly 4D STS. They can come up with and create a ‘cartoon’ version, but can’t go any further. And so the art that is produces looks off, is distorted from a real expression of actual reality, and that normal people just find strange or confusing. Found this when searching around:


State of the art: Psychopathy

Derek Mitchell and James Blair argue that psychopaths lack the ‘music of emotion’.

ONE of the first things to strike you when you begin to work with psychopathic individuals is the clear discordance between the way that they verbalise emotion and the way that they appear to experience it.
As Johns and Quay (1962) once put it, psychopathic individuals ‘know the words but not the music’ (p.217). In this article we argue that although these individuals commit a hugely disproportionate amount of crime, criminality is not the essence of the disorder. The essence lies in their difficulties with emotion.

So seems to possibly be that whoever created this art might be showing via the art how they experience people and reality, since they could lack the ‘music of emotion’ to really connect with reality and have the ability to accurately portray it or portray people in general accurately.

Also, it brings to mind what the state of the movie industry in the US has become. All those in charge of the movie industry, which to me represents mostly a psychopaths take at this point and also pushing of concepts which fit an agenda, seem able to do is try to take older and original concepts and ideas that people liked and were created by others in the past and make a bad, twisted, and distorted caricature of them. It is like the creative ability to connect with normal people is not there and so what we get is a bad and distorted ‘cartoon’ version that normal people find unsatisfying and distasteful and turn away from. The last Star Wars trilogy comes to mind, which older fans really didn’t like, and also the new Matrix movie that came out this month.
 

OutSky

Jedi
Here is part of chapter 19 which deals with 460 added years:

Chapter 19: Society before and after both plagues​



Social conditions before plague of Justinian​


The years before the advent of the Plague of Justinian were marked by the worst tyranny imaginable. I extensively described the situation in a previous book[1]. A few words from Belisarus might suffice to sum up the nature of Justinian and his regime:

That Justinian was not a man, but a demon, as I have said, in human form, one might prove by considering the enormity of the evils he brought upon mankind.[2]
The Nikka riots ca. 532 AD might illustrate the deleterious socio-political context under Justinian’s reign. These were the most violent riots in the history of Constantinople, with half of city being destroyed and thirty thousand rioters killed[3].

Only four years later, a cometary event ca. 536 AD and its consequences, including the Plague of Justinian almost obliterated Europe.

Social and civilizational conditions after the Plague of Justinian

Extensive studies of the available evidence show that, during the 6th century A.D., any kind of human activity beyond basic survival vanished. Furthermore, between the 7th and the 9th centuries, human activity in the Roman Empire was virtually inexistent:

Houses: Building regressed from numerous elaborate stone houses to scattered wooden shacks.[4]

Metal: This flourishing industry during the Roman Empire ceased to exist. It was only during the 16th Century – a full 1,000 years later – that the level of industrial activity prior to the fall of Rome would be once more attained.[5]

Pottery: Widespread and elaborate products became very rare and progress stagnated so much that it’s impossible to distinguish 7th-century ceramics from those produced two centuries later.[6]

Ecclesiastical buildings: The very few churches built during this period were more than ten times smaller than the 4th-century St. Peter’s Basilica of Rome.[7] Only the cathedrals of the 11th century would attain similar sizes.

Farming and warfare: profound stagnation in both these fields for three centuries.[8]

Coinage: Sharp drop in the quality and quantity of coins in most regions of the Empire.[9]

Written documents: almost totally absent for three centuries.[10]

Soon after the last plague outbreak, after more than two centuries of survival and stagnation, civilization re-emerged around 800 AD with a renewed vitality. This period of blooming cultural activity is called the Carolingian Renaissance:

During this period, there was an increase of literature, writing, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms, and scriptural studies.[11]
The most salient effect of the Carolingian Renaissance was a moral regeneration, which is interesting because, at the time, lack of morality and ‘divine wrath’ (for example, in the form of comets and/or plagues) were closely associated[12]:

[The Carolingian Renaissance] had a spectacular effect on education and culture in Francia, a debatable effect on artistic endeavors, and an unmeasurable effect on what mattered most to the Carolingians, the moral regeneration of society.[13]
Most are familiar with the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius, which buried Pompeii and Herculaneum overnight.


View attachment 53162
© John Martin 1822
The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum


The most well-known eyewitness account of the eruption was not written by Pliny the Younger, as is generally believed, but much later in 1498, by Giovanni Giocondo[14], who claimed to have found Pliny’s original letters in Paris. Unfortunately, the original letters no longer exist.[15] what Giocondo found, and what he claimed to have found, are different in any way? Notice also that some other works by Giocondo are marked by controversy.[16] [17] [18]
Spewing ash, Vesuvius spewed a deadly cloud of ash and gases at 1.5 million tons per second, and to a height of 33 km.[19] Pulverized pumice and lava fragments piled up to 20 meters[20] deep,[21] leaving the city of Pompeii buried beneath four million tons of volcanic material and debris[22].

The eruption released 100,000 times the thermal energy of the atomic bomb of Hiroshima[23]. The estimated VEI[24] was 5 on a scale of 6, making it one of the largest known eruptions in the past 2,000 years.

The only problem is, in spite of this magnitude, it didn’t leave any signature whatsoever in Greenland ice cores:



In Antarctica, it’s the same story; no noticeable deposits. Notice that “the event” didn’t trigger a noticeable temperature drop either:



View attachment 53163

© Michael Sigl et al.
Ice-core records of sulfur from two ice cores in Greenland and Antarctica





View attachment 53164

© Smithsonian Institution
List of Vesuvius eruption between 536 AD and 79 AD


In contrast, the eruption of 540 AD is not only backed up by historical observations, but left very distinct marks in both Antarctica and Greenland and in temperature reconstructions. For some reason, it is the only eruption with no associated VEI.

Notice also, all the other alleged eruptions – in 172 AD, 203 AD, 222 AD, 379 AD, 472 AD and 512 AD – despite reaching, for several them, a VEI of 4 and 5 – didn’t leave any trace in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores and temperature reconstructions.

Could it be that just one eruption of Vesuvius (that of 540 AD, with its historical observations and confirmed ice cores) actually happened, while the other eruption (of 79 AD) didn’t happen?

That’s substantially what Mike Baillie proposes in his paper “Volcanoes, ice cores and tree rings; one story or two?”[26] In it he suggests that if no volcanic ash is to be found in ice cores corresponding to 79 AD (as shown by Plunkett et al.) then the real eruption – conventionally attributed to 79 AD – actually occurred in 540 AD.

If one eruption of Vesuvius became two, 461 years apart, could those 461 years have been added to the official timeline?

This time difference occurs elsewhere in historical chronology: the reign of Charlemagne[27] began in 768 AD, and the reign of Constantine began in 306 AD[28]. The difference between those two dates is 462 years.

The moral revival that marked the Carolingian Renaissance was centered on Christianity in general and on Constantine in particular:



A number of authors, among them Heribert Illig and Gerhard Anwander[30], doubt the historicity of Charlemagne and argue that he was a mythical figure modeled after historical Constantine.​

View attachment 53165
Constantine and Charlemagne on Cologne Cathédral

This makes sense since more or less 300 years were blank. But as demonstrated by Ward Perkins[31], blank doesn’t mean added.

Might it in fact be other way around: was a mythical Constantine modeled after the historical figure of Charlemagne? Another piece of evidence supporting this hypothesis is the forgery of the Constantine donation:



In other words, Constantine’s legacy was to grant supreme temporal and spiritual power to the Church, and its main proof was a forgery (probably conducted at the behest of Pepin Le Bref[33], the father of Charlemagne).

One reason why 460 years may have been added is because this gave plenty of ‘time’ to establish a whole genealogy of Popes and Saints, dozens of which, incidentally, have been proven to be mythical.[34] [35]

A final question: why, during the time of Saint Paul, did Christianity not really catch on? In the 26 years (29 AD – 55 AD) he spent preaching, Paul gathered at most one thousand followers.[36] And yet, just a few centuries later, Christianity has taken Western Europe by storm, becoming the new state religion of the Germanic Holy Empire.

After all, the central values at the core of Christianity – mercy, forgiveness and love – were so foreign to most at the time[37].

Might it be that the collective trauma of cometary bombardment and/or a newly introduced virus triggered this evolutionary leap?

In any case, if your hypothesis is true, if 460 years were added the official time, then Paul was right he said to the Corinthians – which is dated from 43-46 AD[38]:




[1] Lescaudron, 2014. Chapter 34: Historic evidence of a cosmic-human connection
[2] Procopius (1927) “The Secret History”, New York: Covici Friede. chapter XVIII, translated by Richard Atwater,
[3] Procopius. (1914) “History of the Wars” Volume I: Books 1-2. Harvard University Press.
[4] Ward-Perkins, Bryan (2005) “The fall of Rome”. Oxford University Press p.95 & p.111
[5] Ibid, pp. 96
[6] Niemitz, Hans-Ulrich (2000), Did the early middle age really exist, p.5
[7] Ward-Perkins, op. cit., pp. 148-149
[8] White Jr., Lynn (1968). “Die mittelalterliche Technik und der Wandel der Gesellschaft”. München
[9] Ward-Perkins, op. cit., pp. 110-117
[10] Hardouin, Jean, (2017) “The Prolegomena”, independently published. Translated by Edwin Johnson. p. 64
[11] Wikipedia contributors. (2021) ‘’Carolingian Renaissance’’ Wikipedia
[12] Lescaudron, 2014 chapter 32-35
[13] Contreni, John G. (1984) "The Carolingian Renaissance". Cambridge University Press
[14] Wikipedia contributors. (2021) “Giovanni Giocondo” Wikipedia
[15] Tom Higgins (2011) “Pliny Correspondence With Trajan John Bartrom” Scribd
[16] Kaiser, R. (2017) “Caesar's Rhine Bridge and Its Feasibility in Giovanni Giocondo's Expositio pontis (1513)”. In Knowledge, Text and Practice in Ancient Technical Writing (pp. 68-92) Cambridge University Press
[17] Stenhouse, William (2003) “Georg Fabricius and Inscriptions as a Source of Law.” Renaissance Studies 17, no. 1 96–107
[18] De Raedt N. (2016) “Architecture” In Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy. Springer
[19] Time editors (1956) “Man of Pompeii" Time
[20] 70 ft
[21] Sigurðsson, Haraldur et al. (1982) "The Eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79: Reconstruction from Historical and Volcanological Evidence" American Journal of Archaeology 86 (1)
[22] Noreen G. (2021) “A World Buried in the Eruption” Eruption Vesuvius
[23] Ibid
[24] Volcanic Explosivity Index
[25] Plunkett, G. et al. (2021) “No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology” Climate of the Past
[26] Baillie, M. (2010) “Volcanoes, ice-cores and tree-rings: One story or two?” Antiquity, 84(323), 202-215
[27] Wikipedia contributors (2021) “Charlemagne” Wikipedia
[28] Mark, J. J. (2019) “Donation of Constantine” World History Encyclopedia
[29] Nancy Ross (2021) “Carolingian art, an introduction” Khan Academy
[30] Heribert Illig, Gerhard Anwander (2002) “Bayern in der Phantomzeit. Archäologie widerlegt Urkunden des frühen Mittelalters”
[31] See: “Social and civilizational conditions after the plagues”
[32] Jeremy Norman (2021) “Lorenzo Valla Proves that the Donation of Constantine is a Forgery” History Of Information
[33] Ross, 2021
[34] Wikipedia contributors (2021) “List of Christian martyrs” Wikipedia
[35] Bauer, S. (2021). “Who Wrote the Lives of the Popes? Permutations of a Renaissance Myth’’ The Catholic Historical Review 107(1), 28-49
[36] Laura Knight-Jadczyk (2021) “From Paul to Mark: PaleoChristianity” Red Pill Press
[37] Mert Toker, “What historic/ancient civilization or society had the lowest preference for mercy?” Quora
[38] Laura Knight-Jadczyk, 2021
[39] 1 Cor 7: 29-31 (NRSVCE)​

Very cool. A quite interesting excerpt. Thanks for sharing. I’m glad to have taken the time to read it.
 

Niall

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FOTCM Member
I did some searching today and found criticism of the life and deeds of Constantine, but nothing questioning his existence (or that he was an emperor). His entry in Wikipedia is infuriating because so many 'facts' about him are manifestly not provable - the sources either do not exist or are from much later in time. On the other hand, many coins marked 'Constantine' have been found from across the empire. And there's a giant arch dedicated to him that still stands in Rome, inscribed with homage to 'Constantine the Great' in Latin. A later forgery on an older arch??
 

gottathink

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
One thing I pay attention to when reviewing history is art. I have never been able to figure out how the art of the Roman Empire went through the changes that would have been necessary to create the images of Constantine that we find. They are almost like cartoons.
Look at the images here: Roman art - Wikipedia

And then look at the head of Constantine here:

Here are images I took of remains of Charlemagne’s palatium built in Nijmegen the Netherlands in 777. You came see which parts of the building are the old palatium. I believe the ceiling is the original art work but I’m not sure. The model is of the original building. The partial ruins are another part of the original building.
B1D234DD-A0D4-49CB-87F1-09C6E1182113.jpegD387953E-90AA-4DFF-A8DC-F03FCCF4B400.jpegC309DE64-C8FB-4647-B257-4CCB944CC253.jpeg89DB6775-C581-4F0B-8E50-6C352A79F256.jpegDB9497E8-58D5-4C5D-A3A8-AE0183DD24DB.jpeg659447E0-A44B-423B-AC14-CEA07B669CEE.jpeg00D0CE61-0F37-47A9-BE6B-EB2654801A6F.jpegC309DE64-C8FB-4647-B257-4CCB944CC253.jpeg
 
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Human

The Living Force
One thing I pay attention to when reviewing history is art. I have never been able to figure out how the art of the Roman Empire went through the changes that would have been necessary to create the images of Constantine that we find. They are almost like cartoons.

Looking at Constantine's 'head displays', they surely do look cartoonish/caricaturish, crooked nose - long face - strong pointy chin.
Same cartoonish style goes for his contemporaries (aureus of Licinius 🤣), brothers Valens and Valentinian I 30-40 years 'later' and their successors co-emperors Theodosius I ("key in establishing the creed of Nicaea as the orthodoxy for Christianity") and Valentinian II at the end of 4th century AD when Roman Empire was 'officially' divided into Eastern and Western.

Cartoonish faces are on diptych with Consul Areobindus (506 AD), cca 200 years after Constantine coincided in official history with start of Byzantine art and culture.

Heck, on 6th century Pectoral with Coins and Pseudo-Medallion, "Byzantine emperors" (who still have their faces) also look cartoonish.

Although it was found in Egypt, the pectoral is believed to have been made in Constantinople, since a personification of that city is depicted on the reverse of the central medallion. The front of the medallion and the smaller coins depict Byzantine emperors. The two ribbed rings at the pectoral's lower edge once held a large medallion of the emperor Theodosius I.

Containing 14 smaller coins + front medallion, this necklace conveniently presented list of 15 Byzantine emperors for cca 150 years between Theodosius I and time to which it's dated (ca. 539–550 AD). ;-D


Cartoonish style art, depicting persons based on few (written/invented?) attributes, indicating possibly imaginary characters, doesn't contradict forgery and hypothesis of inserted time (460y?) into official history, but supports it, OSIT. Even hints in that direction, I dear say.
 

jess

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One thing I pay attention to when reviewing history is art. I have never been able to figure out how the art of the Roman Empire went through the changes that would have been necessary to create the images of Constantine that we find. They are almost like cartoons.

Look at the images here: Roman art - Wikipedia

And then look at the head of Constantine here:
Maybe, I'm not sure, because those images were developed in a time when painting -or the image represented on a plan- was technically worked in two dimensions, that is: the figure (or main figures) and a background. The techniques of representation were only bound to be, as you say, mere illustrations, also due to the fact that painting and the techniques known at that time were very limited.
 

Human

The Living Force
I did some searching today and found criticism of the life and deeds of Constantine, but nothing questioning his existence (or that he was an emperor). His entry in Wikipedia is infuriating because so many 'facts' about him are manifestly not provable - the sources either do not exist or are from much later in time. On the other hand, many coins marked 'Constantine' have been found from across the empire. And there's a giant arch dedicated to him that still stands in Rome, inscribed with homage to 'Constantine the Great' in Latin. A later forgery on an older arch??

In official history there is ~230y period between Pompeii (79 AD) and Constantine (313 AD) and Pompeii/Justinian (540 AD) and Charlemagne (768 AD). Could coins made at the time of Charlemagne, ~230y after Pompeii eruption 540AD, be dated to Constantine's period, ~230y after Pompeii eruption 79 AD?

On Proserpina sarcophagus wiki:
Whether Charlemagne was buried in the Persephone Sarcophagus in 814 is disputed among historians. The sources on the death and burial of Charlemagne do not expressly mention it. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that this sarcophagus could have been found among "the columns and the marble" that Charlemagne had brought from Rome and Ravenna for the building for his Palatine chapel, according to Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni (ch.26). In that case, he would have been buried in the sarcophagus in the manner of a Western Roman Emperor.

Looking at mosaics in Euphrasian Basilica (6th century AD), it seems that decent engraver wouldn't have a tough job to 'insert/change' inscriptions on them. How hard would it be to forge inscription on an older arch in Rome for someone who worked with marble like author(s) of Proserpina sarcophagus (dated to first quarter of the 3rd century AD) did?
 

Pat

Jedi
My reaction is that the art on the Constantine page just looks fake and seems to lack the creative ability or ability to accurately portray reality and/or to portray people in a realistic way. What came to mind is that maybe this is the type of art produced by psychopaths or beings that exhibit psychopathic traits, such as possibly 4D STS. They can come up with and create a ‘cartoon’ version, but can’t go any further. And so the art that is produces looks off, is distorted from a real expression of actual reality, and that normal people just find strange or confusing. Found this when searching around:




So seems to possibly be that whoever created this art might be showing via the art how they experience people and reality, since they could lack the ‘music of emotion’ to really connect with reality and have the ability to accurately portray it or portray people in general accurately.

Also, it brings to mind what the state of the movie industry in the US has become. All those in charge of the movie industry, which to me represents mostly a psychopaths take at this point and also pushing of concepts which fit an agenda, seem able to do is try to take older and original concepts and ideas that people liked and were created by others in the past and make a bad, twisted, and distorted caricature of them. It is like the creative ability to connect with normal people is not there and so what we get is a bad and distorted ‘cartoon’ version that normal people find unsatisfying and distasteful and turn away from. The last Star Wars trilogy comes to mind, which older fans really didn’t like, and also the new Matrix movie that came out this month.
Also,
I haven't watched the film entirely but in France we also have "Sissi l'impératrice" (the empress) which has become something like a very sexual movie... This is so laughable!! How could a project like that be agreed and pushed forward. 😂
 

Niall

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In official history there is ~230y period between Pompeii (79 AD) and Constantine (313 AD) and Pompeii/Justinian (540 AD) and Charlemagne (768 AD). Could coins made at the time of Charlemagne, ~230y after Pompeii eruption 540AD, be dated to Constantine's period, ~230y after Pompeii eruption 79 AD?
I guess, if 'Constantine' was, back then, code for, or synonymous with, 'Charlemagne' - and that he actually ruled from northern Britain to Egypt (where such coins have been found). Otherwise, you have to posit tricksters going around leaving coins in the archaeological layers marked 'Flavius Valerius Constantinus'.
Looking at mosaics in Euphrasian Basilica (6th century AD), it seems that decent engraver wouldn't have a tough job to 'insert/change' inscriptions on them. How hard would it be to forge inscription on an older arch in Rome for someone who worked with marble like author(s) of Proserpina sarcophagus (dated to first quarter of the 3rd century AD) did?
How hard? I don't know. Is there any evidence that this particular one was changed? Surely an expert or two would have noticed that by now? The Arch of Constantine is a major Roman monument and tourist attraction.
 

thorbiorn

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
The estimated VEI[24] was 5 on a scale of 6, making it one of the largest known eruptions in the past 2,000 years.
Volcanic Explosivity Index - Wikipedia Actually it goes to 8:
Using the frequency of the events below and making them comparable to each other, and assuming an equal chance per period, which in reality is unlikely due to cosmic cycles, I get:
VEI 5: 85/1000 years
VEI 6: 10-20/1000 years
VEI 7: 1-2/1000 years
VEI 8: <0.02/1000 years
5> 1 km3Peléan / PlinianParoxysmic> 10 km (Plinian)12 yearssubstantialsignificant
Mount Vesuvius (79),Mount Fuji (1707), Mount Tarawera (1886), Agung (1963), Mount St. Helens (1980), El Chichón (1982), Hudson (1991), Puyehue (2011)
6> 10 km3Plinian / Ultra-PlinianColossal> 20 km50–100 yrssubstantialsubstantial
Laacher See (c. 10,950 BC), Nevado de Toluca (8,550 BC), Veniaminof (c. 1750 BC), Lake Ilopango (450), Ceboruco (930), Quilotoa (1280), Bárðarbunga (1477), Huaynaputina (1600), Krakatoa (1883), Santa Maria (1902), Novarupta (1912), Mount Pinatubo (1991)
7> 100 km3Ultra-PlinianSuper-colossal> 20 km500–1,000 yrssubstantialsubstantial
Mesa Falls Tuff (1,300,000 BC), Valles Caldera (1,264,000 BC), Phlegraean Fields (37,000 BC), Aira Caldera (22,000 BC), Kurile Lake (c. 6460 BC) Mount Mazama (c. 5,700 BC), Kikai Caldera (4,300 BC), Cerro Blanco (c. 2300 BC), Santorini (c. 1620 BC), Taupō (180), Paektu (946), Samalas (1257), Mount Tambora (1815)
8> 1000 km3Ultra-PlinianMega-colossal> 20 km> 50,000 yrs[4][5]vastvast
Wah Wah Springs (30,000,000 BC), La Garita (26,300,000 BC), Ōdai Caldera (13,700,000 BC), Cerro Galán (2,200,000 BC), Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (2,100,000 BC), Yellowstone (630,000 BC), Whakamaru (in TVZ) (254,000 BC),[6]Toba (74,000 BC), Taupō (26,500 BC)

The only problem is, in spite of this magnitude, it didn’t leave any signature whatsoever in Greenland ice cores:
The source of [25] is: CPD - No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology or https://cp.copernicus.org/preprints/8/5429/2012/cpd-8-5429-2012.pdf
Plunkett, G., Sigl, M., Schwaiger, H., Tomlinson, E., Toohey, M., McConnell, J. R., Pilcher, J. R., Hasegawa, T., and Siebe, C.: No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology, Clim. Past Discuss. [preprint], CPD - No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology, in review, 2021.
As an example of a previously held idea:
Greenland ice core evidence of the 79 AD Vesuvius eruption C. Barbante1,2,*, N. M. Kehrwald2,*, P. Marianelli3 , B. M. Vinther4 , J. P. Steffensen4 , G. Cozzi1 , C. U. Hammer4 , H. B. Clausen4 , and M.-L. Siggaard-Andersen4 Clim. Past Discuss., 8, 5429–5454, 2012 www.clim-past-discuss.net/8/5429/2012/ doi:10.5194/cpd-8-5429-2012
 

Pierre

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Fixed.

The paper written by Plunkett has been published in June 2021 in "Climate of the Past"

Plunkett, G. et al. (2021) “No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: Implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology” Climate of the Past
 
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