Volcanoes Erupting All Over

XPan

The Living Force
Reykjanes • Iceland
16 May 2022

German Vulkane.net published following article revolving the volcanic activities below the Blue Lagoon on Iceland.


Magma intrusion confirmed

• IMO confirms magma intrusion near Blue Lagoon
• A good 1.5 cubic kilometers have been intruded
• A volcanic eruption appears possible in the near future

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Magma intrusion near the Blue Lagoon

IMO confirmed this afternoon that a major magma intrusion has occurred northwest of Grindavik in the wake of increased seismicity in recent weeks. The volume of the intrusion is reported to be about 1.5 cubic kilometres, which is already a significant amount. The ground in the area of the Svartsengi geothermal power plant and the Blue Lagoon lifted by several centimetres. A volcanic eruption in the near future cannot be ruled out and the alert status was raised to "yellow". At the same time, the warning for stronger earthquakes was renewed and it was pointed out that earthquakes can trigger rockfalls. Furthermore, it was recommended to secure loose objects and furniture in buildings.

It would already be a rather unfavourable place for a volcanic eruption, as the power plant supplies the state capital with electricity. Besides, the Blue Lagoon is one of the most important tourist attractions in South Iceland. One can imagine why they are only now coming out with the language: many potential bathers at the Blue Lagoon might find the idea of being surprised by a volcanic eruption in the bathing water unpleasant.

The picture shows not only the Blue Lagoon, but also the Thorsbjörn volcano in the background. The direction of view is south. This is where the first ground heave began almost 2 years ago. A few kilometres further west of the Blue Lagoon is the Eldvörp series of craters, where the most recent quakes occurred. The Fagradalsfjall volcano is located about 10 km east of the Blue Lagoon. Even before the Fagradalsfjall eruption, a volcanic eruption was expected between the Blue Lagoon and the Eldvörp crater row.

It is still far from certain that an eruption will occur in the region described this time. It is just as likely that the magma will find another outlet, or simply get stuck in the ground and cool down. Nevertheless, exciting times on Iceland!
 

XPan

The Living Force
Effusive eruption at Etna, Sicily
16-18 May 2022

The eruption at Etna is not considered to be a paroxysm, as it is mainly an effusive, calm eruption (like a smaller version of what happened back in April 2017, entirely effusive - just a lot of lava running back then. That was the only eruption I ever witnessed at Etna despite having visited the island 31 times - 2015-2020).

Here some impressions from the images collected via Vulkane.net & its associated facebook account.


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XPan

The Living Force
Vulcano | Aeolian Islands | Sicily - Italy
24 May 2022

German Vulkane.net has information on the whereabouts at Vulcano


Leak of liquid unsettles people

24 May 2022 • by Marc Szeglat

- Hydrothermal fluids erupted on the beach of Port di Levante
- Sulphur flocculation stained the water whitish
- Carbon dioxide emissions increased
- Fumarole temperatures remain high


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At Levante beach in Vulcano, unusual water discoloration and leakage of fluids were observed, greatly unsettling local residents. The phenomenon began on 22 May, with the leakage of a black, smelly water solution. Later, the seawater turned whitish. Yesterday at noon, the peak of the water discolouration was reached, since then the phenomenon has subsided again. The INGV investigated the liquid discharge, which affected a stretch of beach known for its volcanic fumaroles. The researchers believe that sulphide-rich hydrothermal water leaked out. The subsequent oxidation led to the formation of elemental sulphur and its subsequent massive flocculation, creating the milky white appearance of the seawater. It is very likely that there is a connection between the phenomenon described and the intruded magma body that penetrated the earth's crust beneath the volcanic island last October.

Compared to last month, earthquake activity is down, but the INGV recorded 6 tremors under Vulcano this month. These are the high frequency quakes. Low frequency earthquakes peaked on 22 May when 20 of these shakes were detected. Low-frequency earthquakes are caused by the movement of magmatic fluids, which in this respect correlates with the escape of hydrothermal fluids.

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Fumarole temperatures at Vulcano crater remain high

The INGV weekly report published today states that the emission of carbon dioxide gas was also increased. This is especially true in the area of the mud pool located on Levante beach. There, new highs were reached in May: emissions amounted to 5000 g per cubic metre per day. At the crater it was almost twice as high. Only the emission of sulphur dioxide gas decreased slightly. Fumarole temperatures at the crater are 380 degrees and stable. It is generally said that gas temperatures above 450 degrees are critical and may indicate an imminent eruption.

Carbon dioxide is the first to escape from a rising magma body, but it can also collect in other magmatic fluids. It is likely that deep hydrothermal waters rose and released the carbon dioxide, together with sulphur, although one may ask why no elevated sulphur dioxide concentration was measured.

On Vulcano, there is a latent danger of a phreatic eruption. The risk of this has not diminished after the hydrothermal thrust on the beach. Although no magmatic eruption can be predicted, there is also a certain risk of this. The alarm status is set to "yellow".
 

XPan

The Living Force
Etna Volcano | Sicily - Italy
24 May 2022

Apparently Etna ejected huge watervapor clouds two days ago, on 24 May 2022, looking really impressive... German written Vulkane.net had an article on the event. The lava streams are still active...



Etna emitted large cloud of steam
25 May 2022 by Marc Szeglat

- A large steam cloud formed yesterday due to condensation
- Etna remains effusively and explosively active
- Slight deflation is registered


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Lava flow on Etna remains active


In Sicily, Etna continues to be active, erupting effusively and explosively. The explosive eruptions are mainly strombolian activity, ejecting incandescent tephra. However, there are also repeated phases with increased ash emissions. The lava flow is coming from the new vent that opened on Friday. It is located further up the New Southeast Crater cone than the first effusive bocce did. The strength of the lava ejection has decreased and the lava flow has become much shorter. On the thermalcam you can see the lava front flowing straight over the rim of Valle del Bove. MIROVA registers high thermal radiation with up to 871 MW power. Lava probably accumulated in the Valle del Leone. The tremor remains in the red zone.


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Etna with a powerful steam cloud

As if that were not enough, Etna yesterday emitted a powerful steam cloud that not only astonished the residents on the ground, but was also perfectly visible from space. Numerous residents showed concern and posted pictures on social media. However, INGV volcanologists reassured them and said that no more gas than usual would be emitted. The formation of the vapour cloud is said to have been weather-related, because due to the particularly high humidity and a large temperature difference between the air layers near the ground and the altitude, increased condensation is said to have occurred. Only then did the volcanic gas - otherwise largely invisible - become visible, which Etna emits every day.

Deflation registered

Yesterday, the weekly bulletin on the geophysical parameters at Etna was also published. The INGV researchers go into more detail about the current eruption, citing data up to 22 May. At that time, the lava flow had a length of 2.5 km and covered an area of 0.53 square kilometres. By 20 May, a good 1,500,000 cubic metres of lava had been produced. Shortly after the eruption began, a slight deflation of the volcano began. This means that more lava is ejected than magma rises.




Etna Images • collected around 20 May 2022

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Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Suwuanosejima volcano
stratovolcano 799 m/ 2,621 ft
Ryukyu Islands (Japan), 29.64°N / 129.72°E
Current status: erupting

The explosive eruption of the volcano continues.

According to the JMA local observatory, vulcanian-type explosion sent an ash column to 2,5 km height towards the southeast. Blocks were ejected 500 meters distance from the Ontake summit crater.

The volcanic-seismic tremor accompanied the event.

The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs could affect an area of about 2 km distance from the main crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency volcano activity update 28 May 2022
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Pavlof volcano
Stratovolcano 2519 m / 8,264 ft
Alaska Peninsula, USA, 55.42°N / -161.89°W
Current status: minor activity or eruption warning (3 out of 5)

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) registered elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite data associated with the active lava flow on the eastern slope.
The seismic tremor continues even though no explosions have been detected
 

XPan

The Living Force
Mudvolcano • Timor - Indonesia
7 June 2022

An impressive mudvolcano has erupted on the island of Timor in Indonesia (i don't know if it is located in east or west Timor)

🇮🇩 Telah terjadi semburan lumpur (Mud volcano) di Desa Napan, Kabupaten Timor Tengah Utara, NTT. Selasa (07/06/2022).
🇬🇧 A mud volcano has occurred in Napan Village, North Central Timor Regency, NTT. Tuesday (07/06/2022).

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XPan

The Living Force
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer Volcano • Columbia
14 June 2022 • Vulkan-News 14.06.22: Cerro Negro de Mayasquer - Vulkane Net Newsblog4445 m / 14583 ft

A rather unusual (and double**) volcano is coming to the fore, the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, located right at the border between Columbia and Ecuador. The status has been changed to "Yellow" due elevated activity in swarm quakes (17185 micro quakes have been registered since the end of May). It is believed that the volcano hasn't erupted over 160.000 years, even if there is an entry made in 1936 of a eruption, it is believed that this was an eruptionen from the Reventador volcano.

** Cerro Negro de Mayasquer creates a double volcano together with the Chiles Volcano. So, it is not the country Chile meant in the text below.

PS: I list this event under Volcanoes, rather then earthquakes, since it appears to be volcanic related, and the status has been raised to yellow.

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German Vulkane.net writes:

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer: seismic crisis

State: Colombia | Location: 0.83, -77.97 | Eruption: swarm quake

The Geological Survey of Colombia (IGEPN) warned of a possible imminent eruption of the Chiles-Cerro Negro de Mayasquer complex volcano. The double volcano is in a phase of heightened seismic unrest. Thus, 17185 earthquakes with low energies (microseismicity) have been recorded since the end of May. In addition, there were 1217 volcanotectonic earthquakes with larger magnitudes. The strongest tremors reached M 3.4-3.0. The hypocentres were located at depths of less than 6 km and thus in an area of the earth's crust where magma bodies tend to accumulate. The alert status was raised to "yellow". Without further warning, a volcanic eruption could occur. The -mostly indigenous- population was asked to follow the news closely and to take warnings seriously.

Increased seismicity was already detected under Cerro Negro in 2013. At that time, a magnitude 5.8 earthquake triggered a swarm quake. A good 4300 quakes occurred within a few hours. The alarm status was raised to "orange". However, a major eruption did not occur.

About Chile's Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcano

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer forms a double volcano together with Chiles, which has a common base. Therefore, one cannot speak of two stratovolcanoes here - as is widespread in the literature - but of a complex volcano. It is located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border. The summit area of Cerro Negros is dominated by a caldera that is open to the west. In the caldera is a crater lake with a sulphur field. There are andesitic and dacitic lava flows that may have erupted during the Holocene. The GVP catalogue lists a volcanic eruption from 1936, but it could be from Reventador. The higher peak of Chile's volcano is only 3 km southeast of Cerro Negro and is glacier-covered. Chiles last erupted about 160,000 years ago, but has hot springs and an active hydrothermal system on its eastern flank.

translated with DeepL
 

XPan

The Living Force
Isola di Vulcano, Aeolian Islands - Sicily, Italy
21 June 2022

It appears that the island volcano "Vulcano", has become more unsettled again. German Vulkane.net wrote an update as following:

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Volcano gets more restless again
21 June 2022 by Marc Szeglat


🔸 An increase in micro seismicity was detected on Vulcano
🔸 In parallel, sulphur dioxide emissions increased
🔸 The fumaroles at the crater rim are very hot


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Increase in seismicity and sulphur dioxide emissions on Vulcano

While the Italian island volcano of Vulcano has been a little out of the focus of my coverage in recent weeks, it is catapulting back into the headlines today!

There has been an increase in seismicity over the last few days, which this time is not just local earthquakes, but also low frequency VLP earthquakes, which mainly indicate that magmatic fluids are moving underground.

But first things first: In the INGV's earthquake catalogue, 35 earthquakes are reported for this month in the area of the Lipari Islands, of which 13 are indicated. 8 quakes with magnitudes in the range of microseismicity occurred under Vulcano. In addition, a good 40 VLP earthquakes were confirmed for the last week, which were caused by the aforementioned fluid movements and attest to the volcano's living hydrothermal system.

In line with this, sulphur dioxide emissions from the crater fumaroles have risen again, while carbon dioxide emissions remain at medium-high levels. The fumaroles along the fracture at the crater rim continue to emit gases that are very hot. Last week, maximum temperatures of 382°C were recorded here, while the average was 379°C. In contrast, gas temperatures inside the crater seem to be declining, but current measurements are pending here. One question I ask myself is whether there will be a sulphur fire, because sulphur burns at temperatures of 250°C and above.

Since the ascent to the crater is closed**, it is not easy to check. If this is the case, the blue sulphur fire should make photographers' hearts beat faster. We know burning sulphur from the Indonesian volcano Kawah Ijen, where it became a big crowd-puller ever since the Geonauts/Vulcanauts published the first pictures of it.

The rest of the geophysical parameters have been relatively inconspicuous in recent weeks. No new ground deformations have been observed and the water discolourations at Porto die Levante have subsided. They were visible on satellite photos until 10 days ago.


** I believe I read a couple months ago, that you can get fines up to 500 € at Vulcano, and 5000 € on Stromboli (if i recall correctly, which I am not sure about).
 
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