Volcanoes Erupting All Over

Aeneas

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It wasn't my intention to make a running commentary on the SO2 levels, but after they yesterday decreased to under 3000 tons, they have now increased greatly to 28745 tons per day. A 10 fold increase and the most it has been so far.
The volcano seems to be getting even more active. The SO2 levels dropped on Saturday to under 3000 tons but have today increased to 53600 ton/day, close to a 20 fold increase. 2 new lavaflows at the bottom of the volcano. Here is an screenshot from a few minutes ago:
Volcano 25th of October 2021.gif
 

thorbiorn

The Living Force
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The volcano seems to be getting even more active. The SO2 levels dropped on Saturday to under 3000 tons but have today increased to 53600 ton/day, close to a 20 fold increase. 2 new lavaflows at the bottom of the volcano. Here is an screenshot from a few minutes ago:
There is a Wiki about volcanic gases which has an illustration of the process, using CO2 as an example. Basically, the gas is released pretty much as when we shake a bottle of carbonated drink and then open the bottle quickly, only here, the CO2 is compressed and dissolved with the magma. As the magma moves up, the pressure is less and the liquid phase of the gas moves to the gas phase. Since the gas is under pressure, it explodes at the top. The amount of SO2 released can vary from volcano to volcano and does not only depend on the size of the eruption. The different examples in the image show that the gasses are only released explosively when the volcano is erupting.
1599px-Sketch_showing_typical_CO2_emission_patterns_from_volcanic_and_magmatic_systems.png
 

thorbiorn

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The SO2 levels dropped on Saturday to under 3000 tons but have today increased to 53600 ton/day, close to a 20 fold increase.
With 53600 tons per day, the counter is running. For comparison, an article from NASA has that the total for 2017 was only 200,000 tons.
2018’s Biggest Volcanic Eruption of Sulfur Dioxide
The Manaro Voui volcano on the island of Ambae in the nation of Vanuatu in the South Pacific Ocean made the 2018 record books. A NASA-NOAA satellite confirmed Manaro Voui had the largest eruption of sulfur dioxide that year.

The volcano injected 400,000 tons of sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and stratosphere during its most active phase in July, and a total of 600,000 tons in 2018. That’s three times the amount released from all combined worldwide eruptions in 2017.

SO2 is just one element. Another might be mercury, although there is no data about this particular volcano.
The importance of volcanic emissions for the global atmospheric mercury cycle
David M. Pyle, Tamsin A. Mather,
Atmospheric Environment,
Volume 37, Issue 36,
2003,
Pages 5115-5124,
ISSN 1352-2310,
Abstract: Mercury is a highly volatile, bioaccumulating toxic trace metal with a long (∼1yr) atmospheric residence time. Hg is strongly enriched in volcanic emanations, and volcanoes are the only natural sources of direct Hg emission to the free troposphere and stratosphere. [...] Based on data from active volcanoes, we estimate that the time-averaged volcanic Hg emission is ∼700Mg/yr, or 20–40% of total natural emissions. Continuous degassing accounts for only ∼10% of this flux, while 75% of volcanic Hg is released during ‘smaller’ sporadic eruptions (<10–102Mg/event). Rare, large (>103Mg) explosive eruptions overwhelm the total atmospheric burden several times per century, and account for ∼15% of total volcanic Hg emissions.
Keywords: Mercury; Degassing; Volcanic; Pollution; Heavy metal; Emissions inventories
And if we step out of the purely material aspect of chemistry, mercury, sulfur and fire, connect to alchemy at least as symbols: The Wiki on alchemical symbol has:
Three primes
According to Paracelsus (1493–1541), the three primes or tria prima – of which material substances are immediately composed – are:[1]
The list above did not include fire, but it is one of the four or five basic elements, depending on how many elements one recognizes.
 

Aeneas

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With 53600 tons per day, the counter is running. For comparison, an article from NASA has that the total for 2017 was only 200,000 tons.
I was a little puzzled by this as 200,000 tons per year sounds so little. The article says:
The volcano injected 400,000 tons of sulfur dioxide into the upper troposphere and stratosphere during its most active phase in July, and a total of 600,000 tons in 2018. That’s three times the amount released from all combined worldwide eruptions in 2017.
Sometimes big numbers can lead to misunderstanding. It might be the case here or it might be that those two years are anomalies.
Here is another article estimating the total output per year from volcanoes. This one is from NASA whereas the other one was from NOAA, though quoting the same volcanologist, Simon Carn.

Carn and his team found that volcanoes collectively emit 20 to 25 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere each year. This number is higher than the previous estimate (made from ground measurements in the 1990s) because the new research includes data on more volcanoes, including some that scientists have never visited.
The article from NOAA which @thorbiorn quoted mentions the Mt Pinatubo eruption (1991):
Mount Pinatubo’s violent eruption injected about 15 million tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere. The resulting sulfuric acid aerosols remained in the stratosphere for about two years, and cooled the Earth’s surface by a range of 1 to 2 degrees Fahrenheit.
It further goes on to say:
“We think to have a measurable climate impact, the eruption needs to produce at least 5 to 10 million tons of SO2,” Carn said.
I am inclined to think that the author of the article made a mistake and that 200,000 tons is not per year. Even the volcano in La Palma must be close to have emitted 200,000 tons all by itself and it isn't even a large eruption...yet.

Regarding the volcano in La Palma then it is still quite active even if SO2 levels have dropped to 40,800 tons per day according to the online live webcam.
 

thorbiorn

The Living Force
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Carn and his team found that volcanoes collectively emit 20 to 25 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere each year. This number is higher than the previous estimate (made from ground measurements in the 1990s) because the new research includes data on more volcanoes, including some that scientists have never visited.
[...]
I am inclined to think that the author of the article made a mistake and that 200,000 tons is not per year. Even the volcano in La Palma must be close to have emitted 200,000 tons all by itself and it isn't even a large eruption...yet.

Regarding the volcano in La Palma then it is still quite active even if SO2 levels have dropped to 40,800 tons per day according to the online live webcam.
That would make more sense. Actually 200,000 tons is just 1 % of 20,000,000 tons or what is released in a few days.
An article from 2019 made similar estimates:
Fischer, T. P., Arellano, S., Carn, S., Aiuppa, A., Galle, B., Allard, P., Lopez, T., Shinohara, H., Kelly, P., Werner, C., Cardellini, C., & Chiodini, G. (2019). The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world's subaerial volcanoes. Scientific reports, 9(1), 18716. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54682-1

Using the combination approach described above, we account for 125 individual volcanoes in persistent degassing which, altogether, produced 24.9 ± 2.3 Tg SO2/y in 2005–2015 (Table S1).
[...]
The SO2 flux released during explosive and effusive eruptions is also compiled in Table S1. The time period considered for eruptions extends from 2005 to 2017 and is based on the SO2 climatology produced by NASA (For Our Colleagues). During this 13-year time period eruptions from 89 volcanoes were observed and emitted a total of 33.3 Tg SO2. This corresponds to an average global eruptive flux of 2.6 Tg SO2/y, ∼10 times lower than the annual flux from global persistent degassing. A similar proportion was previously assessed14,15, despite differences in absolute figures. Therefore, our best estimate for strong volcanic emitters that have been measured either by satellite or by ground-based techniques during both persistent and eruptive degassing is 27 ± 2 Tg SO2/y.
If one uses the above numbers, then 27 Tg is 27 *10^12g [T is like Tera in Tb (Terabytes)]
With 1*10^6 g per tons there are 27*10^6 tons or 27 million tons of SO2

Regarding sulfur and volcanoes, there is a concept called Stratospheric sulfur aerosols, which is mostly a result of stratovolcanoes.
Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth's atmosphere. The layer of the atmosphere in which they exist is known as the Junge layer, or simply the stratospheric aerosol layer. These particles consist of a mixture of sulfuric acid and water. They are created naturally, such as by photochemical decomposition of sulfur-containing gases, e.g. carbonyl sulfide. When present in high levels, e.g. after a strong volcanic eruption such as Mount Pinatubo, they produce a cooling effect, by reflecting sunlight, and by modifying clouds as they fall out of the stratosphere.[1] This cooling may persist for a few years before the particles fall out.

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas. The sulfate particles or sulfuric acid droplets in the atmosphere are about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer (a millionth of a meter) in diameter.
It requires a VEI 4 eruption before it reaches the stratosphere. From the Wiki about VEI 4 eruptions
Volcanic eruptions that rated 4 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. Such eruptions release a tephra volume of at least 0.1 km3 (0.024 cu mi) with substantial effects on the surrounding area.
The latest VEI4 eruptions is La Soufrière (2021) On average they occur every 18 months. Notice the name La Soufrière, doesn't that mean "The suffering". Well a nice commentary to the injection spree some governments have gone into.

The following excerpt is from the Wiki of Volcanic Explosivity Index. The columns are a little off, but it should be possible to make out. The last column are the injections into the stratosphere, of among other materials sulfur aerosols, which then by virtue of the altitude become stratospheric sulfur aerosols:
VEIEjecta
volume
(bulk)
ClassificationDescriptionPlumeFrequencyTropospheric
injection
Stratospheric
injection[2]
Examples

4> 0.1 km3Peléan / Plinian/Sub-PlinianCataclysmic> 10 km (Plinian or sub-Plinian)18 monthssubstantialdefinite
Taal (1749, 2020), Laki (1783), Kīlauea (1790), Mayon (1814), Pelée (1902), Colima (1913), Sakurajima (1914), Katla (1918), Galunggung (1982), Eyjafjallajökull (2010), Mount Merapi (2010), Nabro (2011), Kelud (2014), Calbuco (2015) La Soufrière (2021)
5> 1 km3Peléan / PlinianParoxysmic> 10 km (Plinian)12 yearssubstantialsignificant
Mount Vesuvius (79), Mount Fuji (1707), Mount Tarawera (1886), Agung (1963), Mount St. Helens (1980), El Chichón (1982), Hudson (1991), Puyehue (2011)
6> 10 km3Plinian / Ultra-PlinianColossal> 20 km50–100 yrssubstantialsubstantial
Laacher See (c. 10,950 BC), Nevado de Toluca (8,550 BC), Veniaminof (c. 1750 BC), Lake Ilopango (450), Ceboruco (930), Quilotoa (1280), Bárðarbunga (1477), Huaynaputina (1600), Krakatoa (1883), Santa Maria (1902), Novarupta (1912), Mount Pinatubo (1991)

To the requirement for a VEI 4 explosion to reach the stratosphere, I would add that there are several volcanoes that are more than 6000 meters, and obviously if they explode from that high altitude, they would need less energy to propel gasses into the stratosphere, than a volcano exploding form an altitude of only 700 meters.

La Palma is listed as a shield volcano, the sulfur released will come down with dew, dust and rain. The air at La Palma is actually still good, at least a few km away, from where it is reported to Air Pollution in Europe: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map
Grand Canaria.png
An informative video:
La Palma Volcano Eruption Update; Volcanic Smoke Reaches Barbados, Large Earthquake
 
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c.a.

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FOTCM Member
Solar flares ramping up.. M1.3 solar flare.. Earthquake update Tuesday night 10/26/2021
Oct 27, 2021

La Palma Volcano Eruption Update: Dramatic and Rapid Ground Uplift as Surface Activity Subsides
Premiered 3 hours ago Magnetic Reversal News
1635310798082.png

In #Vanuatu , the ashes of the volcano #Yasur fell in the southeast part of the Island of #Tanna , October, 22.

FVXX21 at 00:41 UTC, 27/10/21 from KNES

10/27 09:37 [Suwanosejima eruption] Eruption above the crater Altitude: 1300m Eruption direction entering the clouds: Southeast
http://data.jma.go.jp/svd/vois/data/

Wed, 27 Oct 2021, 03:00 03:00 AM | BY: VN
lapalma-satellite-2021-10-27.jpg


[Seismic swarm] The sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday, October 23, 2021 at 7.44 a.m. local time in the area of the La Soufrière volcano continues: 553 earthquakes recorded mag (M < 1) teacher < 2.5 km under the summit of La Soufrière No earthquake felt (Caribbean island of Saint Vincent in Saint Florida.)

Anak Krakatau eruption (26/10/2021)
Just small plume 500m, I hope it rains there so the camera lens is clean again. " The eruption of Mount Anak Krakatau occurred on Tuesday, October 26, 2021, at 14:13 WIB, the height of the ash column was observed ± 500 m above the peak. The eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 45 mm and a duration of 45 seconds. https://twitter.com/id_magm/status/1...
 
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thorbiorn

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FOTCM Member
Volcanic sulfur — it is all part of a cycle
When some volcanoes emit sulfur, as in the form of sulfur dioxide SO2, there should be a reason. The example of calcium sulfate can show what may be taking place at the volcano in La Palma.
About calcium sulfate, one can learn that:
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ-anhydrite (the anhydrous form), it is used as a desiccant. One particular hydrate is better known as plaster of Paris, and another occurs naturally as the mineral gypsum. It has many uses in industry. All forms are white solids that are poorly soluble in water.[5] Calcium sulfate causes permanent hardness in water.
And this review mentions:
thermal decomposition of CaSO4, at elevated temperatures (>1200°C) to form CaO and SO2
CaSO4 -> CaO + SO2 + 1/2 02
One could look up other salts and compounds of sulfur and learn that as they also undergo thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures. Therefore, if there is sulfur coming out of a volcano, it must be because there are compounds of sulfur deep down and the temperature is high. The process is part of the cycles of the elements that make up the salt, in this case calcium, sulfur and oxygen. Here is an image of the sulfur cycle from: Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461, 2016 ACP - Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region
800px-Schematic-figure-of-the-sulfur-cycle.jpg
Figure 9. Schematic figure of the sulfur cycle. (p. 14444)
The sulfur cycle is in the Wiki explained with more emphasis on biochemistry:
The sulfur cycle is biogeochemical cycle in which the sulfur moves between rocks, waterways and living systems. It's important in geology as it affects many minerals and in life because sulfur is an essential element (CHNOPS), being a constituent of many proteins and cofactors, and sulfur compounds can be used as oxidants or reductants in microbial respiration.[1] The global sulfur cycle involves the transformations of sulfur species through different oxidation states, which play an important role in both geological and biological processes.
The Wiki image of the cycle includes more biochemistry:
555px-Sulfur_cycle_-_English.jpg
Sulfur is found in DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide), in cysteine, in the essential amino acid methionine, in glutathione.
Looking up sulfur led to Foods High In Sulfur:
Benefits of Foods High in Sulfur
Sulfur is primarily found in our body’s proteins and its amino acids. But it is also in our bones, skin, and cells. Sulfur helps our cells use oxygen in energy production – a crucial function for all cell activity – and assists our immune system. Having enough sulfur in your diet is invaluable to your health and offers many benefits.

  • Since sulfur is found in keratin, it gives strength to our hair, skin, and nails. It also aids in collagen synthesis. Collagen gives strength and elasticity to our connective tissue and skin and it is necessary for healthy, supple skin.​
  • Sulfur can help the body fight bacterial infections and aid in cleansing the body of toxins whilst increasing the resistance to bacteria as well.​
  • Sulfur guards the body against radiation, pollution, and the effects of aging. If you don’t get enough sulfur, your body’s defenses lower and your body it is more susceptible to disease and aging.​
  • German research shows the importance of eating foods high in sulfur to fight heart disease. Sulfur compounds found in food act as a natural blood thinner and can lower blood cholesterol. Sulfur also helps the body make taurine, an amino acid that is critical to maintaining a healthy heart. Studies show people with high levels of taurine have lower rates of heart disease death. Taurine helps fight high blood pressure and lowers cholesterol and speeds up the body’s healing process after a heart attack.​
Above there was: "Sulfur compounds found in food act as a natural blood thinner ". Well, if the sulfur emissions in La Palma are anything to go by, then symbolically Nature has an interesting way of commenting on the effects the vaccines seem to have for some people. See: SOTT Focus: Objective:Health — The Documented Negative Effects of Covid Vaccines. If the Covid vaccination campaign continues, do we risk more fire and brimstone? With the word brimstone, the post has come full circle because The American Heritage Dictionary explains brimstone as sulfur:
brim·stone (brĭmstōn′)
n.
1. Sulfur, especially considered as a component of the torments of hell in Christianity.
2.
a.
Damnation to hell.
b. Vehement or condemnatory rhetoric, especially rhetoric warning of the torments of hell for immoral behavior: a sermon full of fire and brimstone.

[Middle English brimston, from Old English brynstān; see gwher- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]
 

Aeneas

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Volcanic sulfur — it is all part of a cycle
Thank you for that exposition and the circuit that it takes, including the last bit, where those who die after having believed lies and taken the vaccines, which causes bloodclots are then made whole again as the sulphur in hell helps the thinning of the blood after which they are fed back into the re-incarnational cycle to have another go at learning the lessons. :lol:
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member

This is a video taken from an NHK helicopter on the 27th. Due to the eruption of a submarine volcano in the Ogasawara Islands, it was confirmed that a large amount of pumice stones drifted around the main island of Okinawa and flowed to the upper reaches of the river in the northern part of the main island. In Nakijin Village, which is adjacent to Nago City, we were able to confirm that pumice stones were invading multiple cages installed offshore.

The lava continues to advance through the sea on La Palma.


[30-second news] On the 29th, Okinawa Prefecture began removal work at a fishing port in Kunigami Village in the northern part of the main island of Okinawa, where a large amount of pumice stones are flowing. In Okinawa Prefecture, it has been confirmed that a large amount of pumice stones have been washed ashore around the coast of the main island of Okinawa from the middle of this month, affecting the fishing and tourism industries. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20211029/k10013326611000.html #nhk_video

 

XPan

The Living Force
Vulcano, Aeolian Islands - Sicily
End of October 2021

vulcano-INGV-2-1024x679.jpg
This image is from earlier times; 17 Oct 2021



A little update

about the Vulcano volcano just north of Sicily, which is now more closely monitored, and despite the Yellow status, things seem to be stable at the moment. Still, I find the Facebook video interesting how strongly the steam was exiting the soil (because when I was there in 2018 as 2019, it certainly didn't steam with such high pressure). I put the video in the end of the text.


Vulcano's geological history

Speaking of Vulcano, I found yesterday a wonderful description about this volcano and it's geological past written at Vulcano Café - but to bring it here, it takes me a while to fiddle with the layout and text. Oh, maybe it is just best, to link you there, if you are interested to dive into the deeper history of Vulcano, you can read it there:

"Vulcano - The island that lent its name to an entire branch of geology".

There you also find other volcano histories, such as "The Making of La Palma", equally interesting because of its geological past, which is so richly described in details. Normally we don't really get much background info on volcanoes (I felt incredibly fascinated yesterday morning on my way home from work, and started to understand La Palmas different features much better; the why and when)

Or why not reading "The Legacy of Lanzarote" ?


🇬🇧 Weekly update on the variations of the parameters monitored by INGV on the island of Vulcano.

Since the Protezione Civile, the Commissione Grandi Rischi and the INGV have jointly decided to increase the volcanic alert level for Vulcano, the Palermo section of the INGV has begun to publish a specific weekly bulletin in which all the data and variations recorded on the island of Vulcano are communicated. Here is a brief summary of what emerges from the bulletin, which includes data collected during the week from 18 to 24 October.

Slightly above 370°C

The temperature of the gases emitted by the fumarolic system of the Fossa Crater reached values slightly above 370°C in the area of the crater rim, while on its inner rim the values remained stable at around 220°C. Unfortunately, once again the weather conditions have disturbed the quality of the data collected continuously by the stations in the summit area of the crater. According to the bulletin, however, the average temperature recorded in the area of the fumaroles on the crater rim remained stable at around 366°C, while the average temperature of those in the inner crater area rose slightly to 110°C.

After a slight decrease last week, this week the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) recorded continuously in the crater summit area has again increased, reaching high values well above those recorded in the crater area in recent years. CO2 fluxes have also increased in the Farglione area, a locality located a few kilometres east of the inhabited area of Vulcano Porto, an area that is not undergoing significant variations. On the contrary, modest decreases in carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded this week in the areas of Camping Sicilia and Rimessa, the two locations where CO2 fluxes had increased significantly the previous week.

SO2 concentration are rising

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) concentrations continued to increase in the summit area of the Fossa Crater. As we have explained in previous posts, SO2 is a gas that indicates the presence of a magmatic body in the outgassing phase between 3.5 and 4 km depth.

The sampling carried out in the wells in the Camping Sicilia area showed a modest decrease in the temperature of the water and in its conductivity, the latter of which changes when certain gases come into contact with the water table, thus modifying the dissolved substances. In the area of the Barbara well, a few hundred metres away from the Farglione area, the water temperature has remained stable while its conductivity has increased.

Slight increase of small magnitude earthquakes

As far as seismicity is concerned, there was a slight increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes located at a shallow depth in the Fossa Crater area compared with the previous week. However, the number of events this week was also influenced by heavy rainfall, which caused rainwater to penetrate a very hot hydrothermal system and evaporate almost instantaneously.

During the course of the week, there were no new changes in the deformation of the soil. The sudden and constant uplift of the ground recorded since 13 September has therefore stopped for the moment, which is certainly a positive sign. Once again, the data recorded by INGV confirms the unrest phase of the volcanic system. We would like to remind you, as always, that at the moment no evacuation is planned, because there is no evidence that a volcanic eruption could begin in the very short term. In fact, before this happens, the parameters monitored by INGV should undergo a further important change.

🇮🇹 Aggiornamento settimanale sulle variazioni dei parametri monitorati dall'INGV sull'isola di Vulcano.

Da quando la Protezione Civile, la Commissione Grandi Rischi e l'INGV hanno di comune accordo deciso di aumentare il livello di allerta vulcanica per Vulcano, la sezione Palermo dell'INGV ha iniziato a pubblicare settimanalmente un bollettino specifico in cui vengono comunicati tutti i dati e le variazioni registrati all'interno dell'isola di Vulcano. Ecco un breve riassunto di quello che emerge dal bollettino che comprende i dati raccolti nella settimana che va dal 18 al 24 ottobre.

La temperatura dei gas emessi dal sistema fumarolico del Cratere della Fossa ha raggiunto valori poco superiori ai 370°C nella zona del bordo del cratere, mentre sul suo fiano interno i valori sono rimasti stabili intorno ai 220°C. Purtroppo ancora una volta le condizioni meteo hanno disturbato la qualità dei dati raccolti in modo continuativo dalle stazioni presenti nella zona sommitale del cratere. Stando al bollettino comunque, la temperatura media registrata nella zona delle fumarole presenti sul bordo del cratere è rimasta stabile intorno ai 366°C, mentre la temperatura media di quelle presenti nella zona interna del cratere è leggermente aumenta e ha raggiunto valori di 110°C.

Dopo una leggera diminuzione avvenuta nel corso della settimana scorsa, questa settimana l'emissione di Anidride Carbonica (CO2) registrata in modo continuativo nella zona sommitale del cratere è nuovamente aumentata raggiungendo valori elevati ben superiori a quelli registrati nell'area craterica nel corso degli ultimi anni. I flussi di CO2 sono aumentati anche nella zona Farglione, una località che si trova pochi chilometri ad est dell'area abitata di Vulcano Porto, zona che ricordiamo non sta subendo variazioni significative. Al contrario invece, questa settimana sono state registrate modeste diminuzioni nelle concentrazioni di Anidride Carbonica nelle zone di Camping Sicilia e Rimessa, le due località in cui i flussi di CO2 erano aumentate significativamente la settimana precedente.

Le concentrazioni di Anidride Solforosa (SO2) invece, continuano ad aumentare nell'area sommitale del Cratere della Fossa. Come abbiamo spiegato anche nei post precedenti, l'SO2 è un gas che ci testimonia la presenza di un corpo magmatico in fase di degassamento tra i 3.5 e i 4 km di profondità.

I campionamenti svolti all'interno dei pozzi nell'area di Camping Sicilia hanno mostrato una modesta diminuzione nella temperatura dell'acqua e nella sua conducibilità, quest'ultima si modifica quando alcuni gas entrano in contatto con la falda acquifera modificandone di conseguenza le sostanze disciolte. Nell'area del pozzo Barbara invece, ovvero a poche centinaia di metri di distanza dalla zona Farglione, la temperatura dell'acqua è rimasta stabile mentre la sua conducibilità è aumentata.

Per quanto riguarda la sismicità invece, i terremoti di piccolissima magnitudo localizzati a poca profondità nella zona del Cratere della Fossa sono leggermente aumentati rispetto alla settimana precedente. Anche questa settimana comunque il numero degli eventi è stato influenzato dalle abbondanti precipitazioni che hanno fatto penetrare l'acqua piovana all'interno di un sistema idrotermale molto caldo che la fa evaporare quasi istantaneamente.

Nel corso della settimana la deformazione del suolo non ha subito nuove variazioni. Il repentino e costante sollevamento del suolo registrato a partire dal 13 settembre si è quindi al momento arrestato, il che è sicuramente un dato positivo. Ancora una volta i dati registrati dall'INGV confermano la fase di unrest - ovvero di agitazione - del sistema vulcanico. Ci teniamo a ricordare, come sempre, che al momento non è in programma alcuna evacuazione, questo perché non ci sono evidenze che un'eruzione vulcanica possa iniziare nel brevissimo periodo. Prima che ciò accada infatti, i parametri monitorati dall'INGV dovrebbero subire un ulteriore e importante variazione.
vulcano-copernicus-1024x1024.jpg



Heavy steaming atop the Vulcano rim
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
The largest earthquake to date in #LaPalma it has been revised to magnitude 5.0 and depth 35 km (the previous value was deeper and therefore gave magnitude 5.1) If you have felt it, fill out this questionnaire or in the app: https://ign.es/web/resources/


Kilauea Volcano Eruption Reaches One Month Mark (Oct. 29, 2021)

Line-2- The president of La Gomera suggests the use of bombs and military aircraft to channel the lava flows from the La Palma volcano #VolcandeLaPalma#LaPalma

We wake up today with thermographic images of the main eruptive cone taken yesterday at 7.30pm (Canarian time) from Tacande at 7.30pm (Canarian time) from Tacande #LaPalma

Another of the fantastic timelapse made by Fernando Bullón, Aeronautical Observer of @AEMET_Canarias#CumbreVieja#VolcandeLaPalma
#TodosSomosArchipielago#TodosConLaPalma
 

thorbiorn

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Regarding the volcano in La Palma then it is still quite active even if SO2 levels have dropped to 40,800 tons per day according to the online live webcam.
For finding the mass of sulfur from the mass of emitted SO2, take half.
One point I overlooked is that one ton of SO2 is only partially sulfur. The Wiki on sulfur dioxide gives the molar mass as 64.066 g mol−1, and the Wiki for sulfur mentions that the standard atomic weight measured in dalton or unified atomic mass unit for sulfur is 32.06 u. This means that one mole of sulfur would correspond to 32.06 g. If one compares with the molar mass of S with that of SO2, then 32.06/64.066 is 0.4958 which is close to 1/2. Therefore, if the emission of SO2 was 40,800 tons per day, then sulfur made up 20,230 tons which is 20,200 with three significant figures. The rest was oxygen. The rule of thumb for finding the mass of sulfur from the the mass of emitted SO2 must then be to divide the mass of SO2 by two, or if you like take half the mass of the SO2.
 

Mari

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FOTCM Member
Interesting interview.

Volcanoes Talking
Do they scream as well? Here is something weird:


The terrifying scream that was captured around the Popocatepetl volcano

For several years now, the Mexican government has closely followed the activity of the Popocatepetl volcano, since it is active and on several occasions it is usually news precisely because of an increase in its activity that translates into large fumaroles and ash fall in the cities near it.

It is because of that different video cameras have been placed near Popocatepetl to record its activity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year, in order to foresee any emergency or eventuality.

However, in recent hours a video shared on social networks has gone viral, precisely from one of these monitoring cameras, which a couple of nights ago captured a phenomenon that has caused concern among users and that occurred near the volcano.


It turns out that, supposedly, one of the monitoring cameras He managed to catch strange screams close to Popocatepetl, which sound somewhat terrifying.

The video would have been captured on October 14 and has generated all kinds of theories and speculations. Some suggest that it would be an animal while others suggest that it could be some type of phenomenon or paranormal activity, since it would seem rather to hear a wail between the barking of a dog.

The most skeptical also indicated that it could be a montage. At the moment, no authority has come out to give its version about the veracity of this video.
 
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