Sol (Sun) and its phenomena

Me too! But I also understand that some people don't have a super fast Internet connection, so finding a compromise would be good, I think.

@Puma, how about considering starting a Substack page, where you make your full posts with pictures and all, and those of us who are interested can subscribe? That way, you are still recording it daily and all (which many of us appreciate!), AND we get to discuss it here. How does that sound? Win-win?
And if it takes off, it could become a source of income! Win-Win-Win!


An X1.5 flare was recorded at 11:08 UTC from the AR3697 region which is already on the far side of the sun so it was partially eclipsed by the edge of the star, that is, it could have been brighter than observed or higher than X1. The explosion did not record a coronal mass ejection heading to Earth, however, a Strong R3 radio blackout over Africa and Europe was recorded.
During the night, this region (AR3697) erupted with a strong M9 flare (video from Dr Keith Strong on twitter), wich produced as usual a radio blackout and more importantly also generated a proton event.

A polar cap absorption event affecting shortwave radio inside the Arctic Circle was recorded as aftermath from strong M9 flare.

Around 17:00 UTC on June 10 the edge of the CME from the M9 event hit the Earth's magnetic field.

The solar wind speed increased to 428 km/s, the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) points to the south which announces the presence of auroras while the Bt value is 14.23 nT, which indicates a strong solar magnetic field.

Let's see if the impact of the CME and the strong IMF have any impact on volcanoes or seismic activity.
The total number of sunspots is now on the order of 148 of which 35 are grouped into 9 active regions, as shown below:

Active RegionSunspotsSize (MH) & class
AR3701110 a
AR3702380 B
AR3703270 By
AR3704110 a
AR3707540 B
AR3708260 a
AR370914230 By
AR3710440 B
AR3711360 B
a (alpha) B (beta) y (gamma) d (delta)

We see that most of the active regions have stable magnetic fields (alpha & beta) while AR3703 and AR3709 have unstable magnetic fields (beta-gamma) that harbor energy for M-flares. This is why the NOAA forecast indicates that there is a 70% chance of seeing M-class flares, in fact, during the transition from AR3697 to the west, 4 M-class events were observed.


The sun's magnetic field is about to flip. Here's what to expect.​

sun flip.jpg
The sun is on the verge of a significant event: a magnetic field reversal.

This phenomenon happens roughly every 11 years and marks an important stage in the solar cycle. The shift in polarity indicates the halfway point of solar maximum, the height of solar activity, and the beginning of the shift toward solar minimum.

The last time the sun's magnetic field flipped was toward the end of 2013. But what causes this switch in polarity, and is it dangerous? Let's take a deep look at the sun's magnetic field reversal and investigate the effects it could have on Earth.

To understand the magnetic field's reversal, first, it's important to be familiar with the solar cycle. This approximately 11-year cycle of solar activity is driven by the sun's magnetic field and is indicated by the frequency and intensity of sunspots visible on the surface. The height of solar activity during a given solar cycle is known as solar maximum, and current estimates predict it will occur between late 2024 and early 2026.


In recent days a phenomenon of solar tornadoes occurred. Solar tornadoes are different from those of the Earth because while those that happen on Earth are due to different atmospheric pressure sources, in the sun the magnetic difference is what causes the movement. A solar tornado is the size of several Earths combined.

According to solar science, the tornadoes occur at the poles, where lines of magnetic force point out into space, these tornadoes reach speeds of up to 200 thousand kilometers per hour.

Keith Strong wrote on X:

SOLAR TORNADOES? You are seeing here huge columns of relatively cold material (50,000K) suspended by magnetic fields in the 1MK (millions of kilometers) solar corona. The magnetic fields insulate the cold plasma but also moves creating what looks like a dance. Some call these tornadoes, but they aren't.

HERE & HERE you can see other tornadoes
The total number of sunspots is now on the order of 117 of which 62 are grouped into 7 active regions, as shown below:

Active RegionSunspotsSize (MH) & class
AR3702139 a
AR3708140 a
AR37098100 B
AR3711510 B
AR371218850 Byd
AR371310130 By
AR371619140 B
a (alpha) B (beta) y (gamma) d (delta)

Sunspot AR3712 is of special interest given its unstable beta-gamma-delta magnetic field that commonly produces strong flares that can reach X-class and for this reason NOAA forecasts a 50% chance of M-class flares and 10% for X-class in the next 24 hours. Sunspot 13712 has been the most active region, It appeared in the southeast region of the solar disk last June 12 and so far has generated a number of C-class flares and three M-class solar flares: one M2.4 on June 14 and two almost simultaneous M1.3 on June 15. These flares recorded minor R1 radio blackouts in Southeast Asia and in the Indian region respectively.​
A POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS SUNSPOT: Only a few days ago, sunspot AR3712 didn't exist. Now it's 8 times wider than Earth and growing fast. This morning in Austria, Michael Karrer photographed the sunspot crackling with activity.
UNEXPECTED CME IMPACT: A CME hit Earth's magnetic field today, June 15th (1157 UT). The unexpected impact sparked a minor G1-class geomagnetic storm, which could wax and wane for the rest of the day.

This unexpected CME impact caused the solar wind stream to reach 457km/sec which is an elevated level, while IMF: Bt (strength) reached 13nT.

Subsequently, at 13:10 UTC an increase in Active Geomagnetic conditions (Kp4) was recorded and at 13:29 UTC a minor geomagnetic storm G1 (Kp5) occurred, which subsided around 15:00 UTC.

"This is probably due to the coronal hole (see earlier tweet) that is on the solar disk. Will the storm intensify possible but unlikely - not a very large coronal hole" Published on X the Solar Physicist Keith Strong.

If this was the case, what caused the solar storm was not a CME but a high-speed solar wind stream from a coronal hole. And in my opinion this is correct, so there is no solar conspiracy.

Stay tuned

Do you remember the AR3664 region? It is about to return to the solar disk. In mid-May this sunspot produced a series of X-class flares and at one time reached a size of 2400MH.​

X8.7 at 16:51 UTC from AR3664 the flare produced a Strong R3 radio blackout over Americas

AR3664 now carries the designation AR3723 and has produced a strong M9.2 flare at 13:01 UTC on June 23 which produced a Moderate R2 radio blackout over Atlantic Ocean and West Africa

The flare was partially eclipsed by the Sun's curvature, so it could have been an X-class flare.
SOMETHING FLARE-Y THIS WAY COMES: Old sunspot AR3664 might not be dead, after all. It's returning today for a rare third trip across the Earthside of the sun. Usually such a superannuated sunspot would be a decaying corpse. Instead, we're getting an explosive active region:​

So, we are possibly in for a week where AR3723 has some surprises in store. At the moment this sunspot has a stable magnetic field, which will change once it is better positioned in view of the instruments.

How is the sunspot situation at the moment?

The total number of sunspots is now on the order of 139 of which 92 are grouped into 11 active regions, as shown below:

Active RegionSunspotsSize (MH) & class
AR371218850 By
AR371310130 Byd
AR371619140 B
AR371914230 B
AR372013140 B
AR37211100 a
AR3722160 a
AR37235159 B/ new
AR3724160 a/ new
AR3725490 Bd/ new
AR3726630 B/ new
a (alpha) B (beta) y (gamma) d (delta)

Solar activity has been at high levels for the past 24 hours thanks to the M9.2 flare. The geomagnetic field has been quiet to unstable for the past 24 hours and FMI total reached 12 nT at 07:30 UTC on June 23, after several days of staying below 5nT.​

This is basically what we should be aware of at the moment. Thank you

Sunspot AR3723 (ex AR3664) has developed a beta-gamma-delta magnetic field that harbors energy for strong M-class flares. However, it is no longer the sunspot that reached the size of 2400 millionths of a hemisphere. Its current size is 170MH which is equivalent to the size of the Earth. Since its appearance on June 23, it has mainly produced minor C-class flares and only two M-class flares, one of which was its presentation with a M9.2

The rest of the active regions have stable magnetic fields, either alpha or beta, so solar activity has remained at moderate to low levels.

The total number of sunspots is now on the order of 135 of which 45 are grouped into 9 active regions, as shown below:​

Active RegionSunspotsSize (MH) & class
AR37197170 B
AR372018130 B
AR37212100 a
AR3722160 a
AR37237170 Byd
AR3724150 a
AR37273100 B
AR3728210 B
AR3729460 B
a (alpha) B (beta) y (gamma) d (delta)

The NOAA forecast for the next 24 hours is 99% probability for C-class flares, 55% for M-class flares and 5% for X-class flares which indicates that the trend of solar activity will remain low to moderate.

As if it were a solar biorhythm, we must wait for the next strong phase.

The spectacular CME referred to by Keith Strong occurred around 09:00 UTC on June 25 and was the result of the breakup of a magnetic filament in the southern hemisphere of the sun.

HERE you can see the CME HERE the filament. As a result of this event, a minor G1 geomagnetic storm is predicted to occur on June 28 when a component of the CME grazes the Earth's magnetic field. In the meantime, on June 27 the geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet levels.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that the interplanetary magnetic field reached 12 nT at 03:29 UTC on June 26. We will have to wait and see what geophysical and weather effects this could have in the coming days.​

As a result of this event, a minor G1 geomagnetic storm is predicted to occur on June 28 when a component of the CME grazes the Earth's magnetic field. In the meantime, on June 27

The forecast failed and what was expected to be a minor G1 storm became a severe G4 (kp8) storm whose threshold was reached at 14:15 UTC June 28 an hour later the storm subsided to G1 (Kp5) level. In fact, the geomagnetic event started at 02:02 UTC when active conditions (Kp4) were reached and from here on conditions progressed until a strong G3 class geomagnetic storm (Kp7) was reached at 13:27 UTC.

The brief and severe G4 geomagnetic storm, which implies the potential for widespread electrical problems or failures, was due not only to a component of the CME that brushed the Earth's magnetic field, but also to a sudden increase in solar wind density.

As can be seen in the following SpaceWeatherlive graph around 15:00 UTC a density of almost 75 p/cm³ was reached.Screenshot_20240628-101939_Chrome.jpg

Solar activity has remained at low levels with a number of minor C-class flares mostly from AR3723 which has lost its gamma and delta components.
The total number of sunspots is now on the order of 146 of which 42 are grouped into 12 active regions, as shown below:

Active RegionSunspotsSize (MH) & class
AR37193240 B
AR3720580 B
AR37213110 a
AR3722190 a
AR3723650 B
AR3724180 a
AR37272230 a
AR37285100 B
AR37298240 B
AR3730550 B
AR3731110 a new new
AR3732240 a
a (alpha) B (beta) y (gamma) d (delta)

HERE you can see an image of the active regions.

All regions now have stable magnetic fields and this implies that solar activity in the next 24 hours is expected to be low to moderate while the magnetic field remains at quiet to minor storm levels.

The Bt component of the interplanetary magnetic field exceeded 20nT around 14:00 UTC and during the severe geomagnetic storm the Bt component registered 18.35nT. Let's see what effects the strength of the solar magnetic field has on the weather and geophysical events in the coming days.

Screenshots are included because the SpaceWeatherlive graph is continuously updated.

Thanks for reading.​
I saw a G4 warning this afternoon from NOAA and got all excited thinking we might have a repeat like the last event. I ended up disappointed when I saw it occurred around 11 am EST :(
I was going to post about it, but then I refrained because I did not know how to present the data; your posts are so much better!
I saw a G4 warning this afternoon from NOAA and got all excited thinking we might have a repeat like the last event. I ended up disappointed when I saw it occurred around 11 am EST :(
I was going to post about it, but then I refrained because I did not know how to present the data; your posts are so much better!

Dr. Tamitha Skov opens an informal briefing on the current G4 solar storm.
RT 1hr+
Hi All! Join me LIVE today at 11:00a PDT (18:00 UTC) for an informal briefing on the surprise (but not so surprise) G4 storm hitting now. This is the expected glancing blow from one of the filaments launched a few days ago, but it has arrived much faster and is stronger than predictions. See what that means for aurora photographers, radio amateurs, and GPS users as we move through the rest of this week, especially since we have another, smaller storm coming over the next few days.

I am making this briefing available to the public, but you Patrons have priority in getting your questions answered! So please feel free to join the You Tube chat directly by clicking the link below, or post your questions here and I will check them during the Q&A.
From the Royal Observatory of Belgium Solar Influence Data Center

Solar flaring activity was at low levels, with a few C-class flares recorded in the past 24 hours.
The largest flare of the period was a C3.2 flare, peaking at 14:40 UTC on June 28, associated with an active region (AR) behind the east limb (N10E89), which is currently rotating onto the disk. NOAA AR 3723 (beta class), which produced only one low-level C-class flare in the last 24 hours, appears to be shrinking and reducing in complexity. Other regions on the disk have simple configurations of their photospheric magnetic fields (alpha and beta) and did not show any significant flaring activity.

Solar flaring activity is expected to be at low to moderate levels over the next 24 hours, with C-class flares probable and a chance of M-class flares.A faint partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) was observed in SOHO/LASCO-C2 at around 00:48 UTC on June 28, directed towards the southeast from Earth's perspective. This CME is likely associated with flaring near NOAA AR 3730. Given the source's location close to the disk center, an impact at Earth is possible from late on July 1st.

This ICME will likely interact with the one from June 27 on its way to Earth, although the prediction of its arrival remains with low confidence. No other Earth-directed CMEs have been detected in the available coronagraph imagery over the past 24 hours.

Over the past 24 hours, the greater than 10 MeV GOES proton flux was at nominal levels and is expected to remain so for the next24 hours.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux, as measured by the GOES-16 satellite, remained below the 1000 pfu threshold. It isexpected to remain below the threshold during the next 24 hours. The 24 hour electron fluence was at normal levels and is expected to remain at these levels for the following 24 hours.

Cosmic Radiation Raining Down on Earth and Malignancy (PDF)

Meanwhile, under this current Solar Cycle
The ongoing stormy deterioration in the South-West of the country is causing a remarkable drop in temperatures reaching up to -14°C compared to yesterday at the same time in #Aveyron !
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Wow, I would never have imagined that sunspots - over time -.... would sign a certain pattern, it looks fractal.
Reminds me of time as an illusion.

LOOKS LIKE SOLAR MAX: The first six months of 2024 are in the books. Amateur astronomer Eduardo Schaberger Poupeau stacked daily sun images for all 182 days, and it looks like Solar Max:
"Since the beginning of 2024, the sun has increased its activity," says Poupeau. "The presence of so many sunspots is a clear indication that we are very close to the maximum activity of this cycle."

Poupeau's image contains some notable features. First, the sunspots are concentrated in two bands, one north and one south of the sun's equator. This is normal. As the solar cycle unfolds, these two bands will converge on the equator, eventually meeting and extinguishing themselves in a collision of opposite-polarity magnetic fields. Solar Max will be replaced by Solar Min.

Second, the southern hemisphere seems more active with many more sunspots than the north. This is also normal; sometimes one hemisphere dominates the other for months at a time. In this case, the counts are skewed by one massive southern sunspot (AR3664), which circled the sun three times, tripling its contribution to the total. AR3664 is famous for launching the May 10th superstorm.

Solar Max, if it has indeed arrived, is far from over. Solar Maxima typically last for 2 to 3 years, and we are just getting started. Stay tuned!


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Dr.Tamitha Skov gives the latest Solar forecast as the Sun settles down from its recent unrest.

Hurricane Beryl Barrels Down during Minor Storms & Small Flares | Solar Storm Forecast 04 July 2024
Happy 4th of July Everyone! While many of us in the USA are celebrating the holiday, others are dealing with the impact of Hurricane Beryl. Thankfully, the Sun has calmed down over the past week so the risk for big radio blackouts is the lowest it has been in several months. We do have a few mild solar storms to contend with this week, but they will hardly be noticed at mid-latitudes. At high latitudes, aurora photographers might get some fleeting aurora, but shows will not be nearly as spectacular as some recent storms have been. Luckily this means that hurricane first responders and "SAR" (Search and Rescue) teams should be able to employ GPS-enabled drones and amateur radio communications in their emergency toolkit to help in those disaster zones over this coming week. Learn the details of the mild solar storms impacting Earth, watch new regions emerge on the Sun's farside, and see what else our Sun has in store. This Space Weather News forecast sponsored in part by Millersville University:

FARSIDE SUNSPOT: A potentially-large sunspot group is hiding just behind the sun's southeastern limb. It's the big dark spot in this helioseismic map of the sun's farside. The active region will rotate onto the Earthside of the sun early this week. Solar flare alerts: SMS Text

The powerful solar storm on May 20, 2024, significantly impacted NASA's Mars missions, particularly the
@MarsCuriosity and the @MAVEN2Mars orbiter. This solar flare, among the strongest in recent years, caused a sharp increase in radiation levels detected by Curiosity's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD). The rover's navigation camera captured images showing "snow", visual artifacts from charged particles hitting the camera sensor.

The storm also affected the Mars Odyssey orbiter, temporarily disabling its star camera used for orientation. Despite this, the orbiter continued to collect valuable data on the energetic particles and radiation from the event.

High above the surface, MAVEN observed the resulting auroras, which enveloped the entire planet due to Mars' lack of a protective magnetic field. This event was the largest solar energetic particle event MAVEN had recorded since its mission began.

These observations provide critical data for understanding how solar storms affect Mars and have significant implications for future human exploration, emphasizing the need for proper shielding against radiation.


Creating a viable and enduring terraformed atmosphere on Mars is challenging due to its lack of a strong magnetic field. This absence makes Mars vulnerable to solar wind erosion, which strips away the atmosphere, and exposes the surface to high levels of radiation. These conditions complicate maintaining a thick atmosphere and protecting potential inhabitants from radiation. This lack of a magnetic field likely prevented complex life from evolving on Mars.

Current erratic weather patterns

Snip: July 8, 2024 Cap Allon
2024 is proving an impressive year for snow in the European Alps, and an inconvenient one for the warmists.

I’ve written about the record-accumulations on Swiss glaciers, but the same is being witnessed across northern Italy.

In the first six months of 2024, the administrative region of Lombardy –for example– has posted well-above average accumulations across all of its glaciers, particularly on the Adamello.

Contrary to AGW Party predictions of ‘forever less’ (more on that below), data from the Arpa Lombardia Nivometeorological Center reveal that between May and June, the period of maximum accumulation, Lombardy’s glacial basins logged depths of as much as 40 meters (131 feet).

Conducting 55 core samples and numerous snow depth measurements, Arpa Lombardia data show that glaciers like Adamello, Pisgana, Alpe Sud, and Savoretta witnessed snowfall well above the historical average, 10 meters (32.8 feet) above in many cases

Furthermore, this year’s snow is dense and compact, and is so far withstanding summer warmth, reducing the glacial melt season which will contribute to a season of limited drought.

Endless mainstream studies foresaw the Alps suffering significant declines in snow cover and glacier mass by now.

One study, led by the University of Bayreuth and published in 2012, projected that Alpine ski resorts would lose 80 snow cover days annually by the mid-2020s if high emission scenarios continued.

Likewise, a Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (2019) paper projected that the Alps would see substantial snow cover reduction by 2025. The study indicated that the number of snow cover days could halve, with severe impacts on water availability and local ecosystems.

While a Eurac Research study, published in 2022, suggested that, due to cLiMaTe ChAnGe, the Alps could see a reduction in snow cover by up to 50% by 2025.

Despite the prophesies, the snowfalls of 2024 have led to great summer glacier skiing conditions, with well-above average pack.

Even into July, skiing and snowboarding is on offer in Austria, France, Italy and Switzerland, at the following resorts:
  • Hintertux, Austria
  • Tignes, France
  • Val d’Isere, France
  • Cervinia, Italy
  • Passo Stelvio, Italy
  • Zermatt, Switzerland

Screenshot 2024-07-08 at 12-26-22 image-25.png (WEBP Image 1000 × 500 pixels).png


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